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Carter bonds

(USA). Foreign currency US treasuries, denominated in Deutschmarks and Swiss francs issued when Jimmy Carter was President of the United States during the late 1970s. See also ...

Carter bonds

Carter bonds (USA)   Reference library

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... bonds (USA) . Foreign currency US treasuries , denominated in Deutschmarks and Swiss francs issued when Jimmy Carter was President of the United States during the late 1970s. See also Brady bonds...

Carter bonds

Carter bonds  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(USA).Foreign currency US treasuries, denominated in Deutschmarks and Swiss francs issued when Jimmy Carter was President of the United States during the late 1970s. See also Brady bonds.
families, core

families, core   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
802 words

...In Fisher Row: Fishermen, Bargemen and Canal Boatmen in Oxford, 1500–1900 ( 1982 ) Mary Prior showed how a group of families who were united by occupation and kinship formed a remarkably stable group by the riverside, while transient and seasonal workers such as carters and drovers were constantly moving in and out. Family continuity is equally evident in trades requiring fixed capital, such as milling , malting , tanning , and brewing . See David Hey , ‘Stable Families in Tudor and Stuart England’, in Della Hooke and Dave Postles ...

Federal Reserve Act

Federal Reserve Act   Reference library

Wyatt C. Wells

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...financial institutions. The crisis illuminated severe weaknesses in the American banking system. National banks around the country issued currency backed with U.S. government bonds. They kept their reserves either in cash or on deposit in several designated money-center banks. The system produced an inelastic currency: because it was tied to the availability of U.S. Treasury bonds, it could not expand with the economy. The problem became particularly acute at harvesttime, when the demand for money rose as farmers sold their crops. Moreover, because reserves...

Federal Reserve Act

Federal Reserve Act   Reference library

Wyatt C. Wells

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
755 words

...sound financial institutions. The crisis illuminated severe weaknesses in the American banking system. National banks around the country issued currency backed with U.S. government bonds. They kept their reserves either in cash or on deposit in several designated money-center banks. The system produced an inelastic currency—since it was tied to the availability of Treasury bonds, it could not expand with the economy. The problem became particularly acute at harvest time, when the demand for money rose as farmers sold their crops. Moreover, because reserves...

Federal Reserve Act

Federal Reserve Act   Reference library

Wyatt C. Wells

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
736 words

...sound financial institutions. The crisis illuminated severe weaknesses in the American banking system. National banks around the country issued currency backed with U.S. government bonds. They kept their reserves either in cash or on deposit in several designated money-center banks. The system produced an inelastic currency—since it was tied to the availability of Treasury bonds, it could not expand with the economy. The problem became particularly acute at harvest time, when the demand for money rose as farmers sold their crops. Moreover, because reserves...

suburban life

suburban life   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...‘R. Andom ’, Alice and Claude Askew , J. D. Beresford , Arthur M. Binstead , Shan F. Bullock , Sophie Cole , William De Morgan , D. Gerard , Mrs Harold E. Gorst , ‘Keble Howard ’, Edgar Jepson , Lucas Malet , Leonard Merrick , B. Paul Neuman , Barry Pain , W. Carter Platts , W. Pett Ridge , W. Teignmouth Shore , John Collis Snaith , Edward Thomas , Hugh Walpole , Percy White , ‘John Strange Winter ’, and Leonard Woolf . John Ruskin ( 1819–1900 ) put the objection to suburbia pithily when he alluded to ‘those gloomy rows of...

The United States

The United States   Reference library

Michael Krondl

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,882 words

...the desserts they had grown up with. English cookbooks, such as Hannah Glasse’s The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy ( 1747 ) and Susanna Carter’s Frugal Housewife (ca. 1765 ), were both imported and republished in eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century America. As specifically American desserts were developed, some publishers simply inserted an addendum to the English texts. Both Glasse’s and Carter’s books were published (in 1805 and 1803 , respectively) with an identical appendix of “new receipts adapted to the American mode of cooking.”...

Glass-Steagall Act

Glass-Steagall Act   Reference library

Sylvia Maxfield

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,240 words

...Act The Glass-Steagall bill, commonly referred to by the names of its congressional authors, was formally titled the Banking Act of 1933 ; Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed it into law on Friday, 16 June 1933 . Carter Glass , a Democratic senator from Virginia , was the central figure in the bill’s history. Henry B. Steagall , a Democrat and the House representative from Alabama , was the less willing partner. The Republican Party was largely absent from the legislative debate, having been resoundingly defeated in the 1932 elections,...

Liebeslieder Walzer

Liebeslieder Walzer   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
800 words

...Karinska . First performance: 22 November 1960 , City Center of Music and Drama, New York, New York City Ballet. Pianists: Louise Sherman, Robert Irving . Singers: Angeline Rasmussen , Mitzi Wilson , Frank Poretta , Herbert Beattie . Dancers: Diana Adams , William (Bill) Carter; Melissa Hayden , Jonathan Watts ; Jillana , Conrad Ludlow ; Violette Verdy , Nicholas Magallanes . Balanchine's Liebeslieder Walzer , an hour-long marathon of pas de deux, is the choreographer's most extended, intricate, and intimate confessional about love. The ballet,...

Bond, Julian

Bond, Julian (b. 14 January 1940)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
785 words

...directions. Some observers had already begun to suspect that Bond's enthusiasm for politics was waning. His opponents charged him with being ineffective and with frequent absenteeism. In 1976 Bond had turned down an opportunity to work for the newly elected president Jimmy Carter , a decision that seemed to indicate that he had less interest in politics. In 1998 Bond achieved a longtime goal when he was elected chairman of the board of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP ). In that capacity he oversaw an aggressive...

German Americans

German Americans   Reference library

Walter D. Kamphoefner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Walter D., Wolfgang Helbich, and Ulrike Sommer, eds. News from the Land of Freedom: German Immigrants Write Home . Translated by Susan Carter Vogel. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991. Keil, Hartmut, and John B. Jentz, eds. German Workers in Industrial Chicago: A Documentary History of Working-Class Culture from 1850 to World War I . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988. Luebke, Frederick C. Bonds of Loyalty: German-Americans and World War I . DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1974. Pickle, Linda Schelbitzki. Contented among...

Transportation Revolution

Transportation Revolution   Reference library

Melvyn Dubofsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,180 words

...significance when the Civil War erupted. [ See also Agriculture ; Canals and Waterways ; Maritime Transport ; Railroads ; Steam Power ; and Turnpikes and Early Roads . ] Bibliography Goodrich, Carter . Government Promotion of Canals and Railroads, 1830–1890 . New York: Columbia University Press, 1960. Goodrich, Carter , et al. Canals and American Economic Development . New York: Columbia University Press, 1961. Scheiber, Harry N. Ohio Canal Era: A Case Study of Government and the Economy, 1820–1861 . Athens, Ohio: Ohio University...

Divorce

Divorce   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,269 words

...and affective functions, weakening the solidarity and collective interest of its members, and dissolving the physical unity of workshop and household could divorce become an engine of change. See also Courts , article on Marriage Courts ; Family ; Marriage ; and Women . Carter, Hugh , and Paul C. Glick . Marriage and Divorce . Cambridge, Mass., 1970. Reliable and accessible overview of divorce as a historical problem. Kitchen, Shepherd B. A History of Divorce . London, 1912. An early though still useful overview of the subject despite the author's...

Beauty Contests

Beauty Contests   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,241 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... Beauty Queens on the Global Stage: Gender, Contests, and Power . New York: Routledge, 1996. Watson, Elwood , and Darcy Martin , eds. There She Is, Miss America: The Politics of Sex, Beauty, and Race in America's Most Famous Pageant . New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Anne Carter...

Etzioni, Amitai Werner

Etzioni, Amitai Werner (1929–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,050 words

.... Since 1980 Etzioni has been University Professor at George Washington University in Washington, D.C., and he is also the Director of the Institute for Communitarian Policy Studies. Etzioni was a guest scholar at the Brookings Institution in 1978; a senior advisor to the Carter Administration during 1979–80 ; the Thomas Henry Carroll Ford Foundation Professor at the Harvard Business School during 1987–9 ; and has been a visiting lecturer at many universities. Etzioni was the founding President of the International Society for the Advancement of...

Deregulation, Financial

Deregulation, Financial   Reference library

Jennifer Taub

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,493 words

...the financial system from a “catastrophic failure” (FCIC, 2011, p. 55). The Dodd–Frank Act made an attempt to restore some of the separation between utility and investment banking through what became known as the “Volcker Rule.” [ See also Economic Deregulation and the Carter Administration ; Financial and Banking Promotion and Regulation ; Financial Crises, 1980s– 2010 ; Glass–Steagall, Repeal of ; Great Recession of 2008 and After ; New Deal Banking Regulation ; and Shadow Banking System .] Bibliography Baxter, Lawrence G. “How ‘Big’ Became...

Jabavu, John Tengo

Jabavu, John Tengo (1859)   Reference library

catherine higgs

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,118 words

...legacy is still the South African Native College, now the University of Fort Hare. [ See also Jabavu, Davidson Don Tengo .] bibliography Jabavu D. D. T . The Life of John Tengo Jabavu . Lovedale, South Africa: Lovedale Institution Press, 1922. Karis Thomas and Gwendolen M. Carter , eds. From Protest to Challenge: A Documentary History of African Politics in South Africa 1882–1964 . 4 vols. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1977. Ngcongco Leonard D . “ Jabavu and the Anglo-Boer War. ” Kleio Bulletin 2 (October 1970): 6–18. Odendaal André . ...

Economic Policy since World War II

Economic Policy since World War II   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,516 words

... reelection defeat. The inability of the new president, Jimmy Carter, to conquer stagflation undermined the Democrats’ reputation as the party of prosperity that FDR had established. He began with a stimulus program to boost post-recession recovery, quickly shifted to moderate restraint, and ultimately opted for an anti-inflation austerity program that split his party and provoked Senator Edward Kennedy ’s unsuccessful but damaging primary challenge for the 1980 presidential nomination. Carter also had to settle for a compromise 1978 energy bill that fell...

Legal Profession

Legal Profession   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
10,902 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and became the first black woman admitted to practice before the United States Supreme Court. Eunice Hunton Carter, a 1932 graduate of Fordham Law School, was an assistant district attorney in New York City who was instrumental in the successful investigation and prosecution of the biggest organized crime case in the nation’s history. Working with New York County District Attorney William C. Dodge , then with Special Prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey, Carter exposed the racketeering that flourished in New York City and the corruption of the magistrate’s court to...

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