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Carolingians

The Carolingian family left its direct mark on history from the early 7th c. until 987. In a first stage, it had acquired the political responsibilities that gradually made it ...

Carolingians

Carolingians   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... or Carlovingians The dynasty named after Carolus Magnus or charlemagne . The Carolingians were descended from Arnulf, a 7th-century bishop of Metz, and ruled in France ( 751–987 ), Germany ( 752–911 ) and Italy ( 744–887...

Carolingians

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The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
99 words

... . Dynasty founded in 751 when Pépin le Bref , Maire du Palais of Austrasia , obtained papal approval for his coronation at the expense of the last Merovingian ruler. Members of Pépin's family ruled in East Francia until 911 , and (with interruptions) in West Francia until 987 . After the brilliance of Pépin's and Charlemagne 's reigns, their successors had to face division of their empire, declining resources, internal strife between brothers, and invasions from Vikings, Saracens, and Magyars. But despite their weakening political grip, the...

Carolingians

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
110 words

... Second Frankish dynasty of early medieval Europe. Founded in the 7th century by Pepin of Landen , it rose to power under the weak kingship of the Merovingians . In 732 Charles Martel defeated the Muslims at Poitiers; In 751 his son Pepin III (the Short) deposed the last Merovingian and became king of the Franks. The dynasty reached its peak under Pepin's son Charlemagne (after whom the dynasty is called), who united the Frankish dominions and much of w and central Europe, and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the pope In 800 . His...

Carolingians

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,326 words

... The Carolingian family left its direct mark on history from the early 7 th c. until 987 . In a first stage, it had acquired the political responsibilities that gradually made it a princely dynasty. With Pippin the Short , in 751 , it acceded to royalty, and in 800 Charlemagne became emperor. These successive titles both supposed and founded a dynastic legitimacy. Unlike the other old Germanic royal families, this legitimacy did not rest on a very ancient acquisition, but was on the contrary the fruit of a slow advance. What is more, it was...

Carolingians

Carolingians  

The Carolingian family left its direct mark on history from the early 7th c. until 987. In a first stage, it had acquired the political responsibilities that gradually made it ...
Carolingian

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The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
13 words

... , relating to the Emperor Charlemagne (Carlomagno). See chivalry ; epic ; romance ; Spagna, La...

Carolingian

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...: L’Empire carolingien (Paris, 1968); Eng. trans. as Carolingian Art (London, 1970) and The Carolingian Renaissance, 750–950 (New York, 1970) [esp. good illus.] J. Beckwith : Early Medieval Art: Carolingian, Ottonian, Romanesque (London and New York, 1969/ R 1996) P. Lasko : Ars sacra, 800–1200 (Harmondsworth, 1972; rev. ed., New Haven and London, 2/1994) C. Davis-Weyer : Early Medieval Art, 300–1150: Sources and Documents (Toronto and London, 1986) R. McKitterick , ed.: Carolingian Culture: Emulation and Innovation (Cambridge, 1994) 799:...

Carolingian

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The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
261 words

... Term describing the style of architecture associated with the reign of Emperor Charlemagne (800–14). Carolingian architecture is generally accepted as dating from late C8 to early C10, and examples were erected in The Netherlands, France, and Germany, especially in the areas bounding the Rhine. Stylistically, Carolingian architecture looked back to Early-Christian basilicas of the time of the Roman Emperor Constantine ( r. 324–37), and included the first building of the Abbey Churches of St-Denis ( c .754–75) and Fulda (790/2–819), the latter...

Carolingian

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
135 words

... A term first used in 1837 specifically to describe the art associated with Charlemagne, king of the Franks, who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome in 800 . Charlemagne's own empire expanded to include parts of modern-day France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and Italy. He was particularly concerned to achieve a revival of the idea of the later, Christian Roman empire under the emperors Constantine and Theodosius. The art produced during his reign was a fusion of Insular , late antique, and Byzantine traditions. It embraced architecture,...

Carolingian empire

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
160 words

...“Carolingian Renaissance”). After the division of the empire by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, civil war among the Carolingians, Viking raids, and the ambitions of rival families subjected the empire to intolerable strains. Nevertheless, Carolingians reigned in Germany till 911 and in France till 987 and they left behind a prestige which later kings of the Middle Ages sought to...

Carolingian art

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The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
231 words

...revival. The most important Carolingian building to survive largely intact is his Palatine (i. e. imperial palace) Chapel at Aachen. Little remains of Carolingian mural paintings or mosaics, but several manuscripts survive, showing a classical, naturalistic figure style, but also at times a vivid expressiveness. Among the best known are the Ebbo Gospels (Bibliothèque Municipale, Épernay), made for Ebbo, Archbishop of Reims 816–35 ( see Reims School ), and the Utrecht Psalter . There was no large-scale sculpture, but Carolingian ivory sculpture and metalwork...

Renaissance, Carolingian

Renaissance, Carolingian   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
457 words

...R. Poole D. A. Bullough , Carolingian Renewal (1991). C. Chazelle and B. Edwards , eds, The Study of the Bible in the Carolingian Era (2003). J. Hubert , J. Porcher , and W. F. Volbach , L’Empire carolingien (1968). R. McKitterick , Carolingian Culture: Emulation and Innovation (1994). C. Stiegemann and M. Wemhoff , 799: Kunst und Kultur der Karolingerzeit (1999). J. Story , Charlemagne: Empire and Society (2005). W. T. Treadgold , ed., Renaissances before the Renaissance (1984). W. Ullmann , The Carolingian Renaissance and the Idea of...

Carolingian Empire

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
107 words

... Empire [CP] In archaeological and architectural usage this term relates to the period from about ad 750 through to ad 900 , although the term itself stems from the reign of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) between ad 771 and ad 814 immediately following the period of the Frankish Empire . The Carolingian Empire witnessed a cultural renaissance. The enormous wealth gained through decades of successful campaigning was partly used for massive ecclesiastical patronage, especially the building of new churches, the founding of monasteries, and...

Carolingian schools

Carolingian schools   Reference library

Renie Choy

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
905 words

...Church and the Carolingian Reforms, 789–895 (London, 1977). R. McKitterick (ed.), Carolingian Culture: Emulation and Innovation (Cambridge, 1994). J. [A.] Marenbon , From the Circle of Alcuin to the School of Auxerre: Logic, Theology and Philosophy in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1981). J. M. Wallace Hadrill , The Frankish Church (Oxford History of the Christian Church, 1983), 205–389. P. Godman (ed.), Poetry of the Carolingian Renaissance (London, 1985; extracts with Eng. tr.). D. A. Bullough , Carolingian Renewal: Sources and...

Carolingian art

Carolingian art   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
876 words

... ad . Although the art produced by the Carolingians has been described as compilation rather than creation, their assimilation and transformation of the styles and subject matter of early Christian art was to become the first major art style of medieval Europe. And despite the processes of imitation, what was produced was something quite different: the so-called legacy of Rome was not merely the emulation of Roman culture but, through the use of varied sources, the making of a new and distinctively Carolingian one. Charlemagne's revival of classical art...

Carolingian schools

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
174 words

... schools . In the reign of Charlemagne ( 768–814 ) there was an intellectual renaissance which established the basis for the school curriculum and education throughout the Middle Ages. Charlemagne himself, probably advised by Alcuin , Theodulf of Orléans , and Paul the Deacon , initiated reforms to improve standards of literacy and Latin learning. In 789 the Admonitio generalis decreed that schools were to be established in every monastery and bishop’s residence, and a circular letter sent to all abbots and bishops c. 800 urged them not to...

Carolingian sculpture

Carolingian sculpture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... sculpture Except for a stone head of a youthful figure ( c. 800 ; h. 220 mm; Darmstadt, Hess. Landesmus.) excavated at Lorsch, large-scale figure sculpture has not survived from the Carolingian period, and although stucco decoration was often combined with frescoes in Carolingian churches, such as at S Salvatore, Brescia, and S Benedetto, Málles Venosta, very little sculpture in this medium remains from the period. Decorative sculpture, however, does seem to have played a significant part in the Carolingian renovatio . In the palace chapel at...

Carolingian renaissance

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
77 words

... renaissance Cultural revival in France and Italy under the encouragement of Charlemagne . Having enlarged and enriched the Frankish kingdom and organized an efficient government, the illiterate monarch gathered notable educators and artists from all over the world. He promoted Catholicism, art, and learning by founding abbeys and encouraging church building. As the first Roman Emperor in the West for more than 300 years, he imposed a new culture in Europe, combining Christian, Roman and Frankish...

Franks, Carolingian

Franks, Carolingian   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,681 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Carolingian [This entry contains three subentries, on Carolingian sources from 751–899 , an overview of Carolingian military history from 751–899 , and on Carolingian historiography from 751–899 . ] Sources (751–899) To take the period between 751 and 899 when speaking about sources for the Carolingian wars is problematic. The year 751 , when Pépin the Short was crowned king of the Franks and the last Merovingian ruler was deposed, marks a clear dividing line in political history today. But nevertheless, this event did not loom so large in the...

Carolingian ivories

Carolingian ivories   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,934 words
Illustration(s):
1

... ivories Before the establishment of the Carolingian dynasty, the craft of ivory-carving was almost extinguished, partly owing to the spread of Islam, which interrupted the supply of ivory from India and North Africa. Carolingian ivories, most of which are relief plaques made to adorn luxury book covers, are closely related in composition, framing, ornament, and drapery styles to contemporary illuminated manuscripts. The same models were used for both, and in some instances the same person may have been both the ivory-carver and the illuminator....

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