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Campaign Against Racial Discrimination

Group set up in 1965 to campaign against racism in Britain. Britain had entered testing phase in the immediate post‐Second World War period: the black population had increased enormously, ...

Campaign Against Racial Discrimination

Campaign Against Racial Discrimination   Reference library

Ron Ramdin

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
978 words

...Campaign Against Nuclear Disarmament, the Indian Workers' Association (Southall), the Standing Conference of West Indian Organizations (London Region), the West Indian Students' Union , the British Caribbean Association, the Anti‐Apartheid Movement, the National Federation of Pakistani Associations, and the Council of African Organizations. At a meeting held on 10 January 1965 the name the Campaign Against Racial Discrimination ( CARD ) was officially adopted, and a few weeks later the body declared its opposition to all forms of racial discrimination...

Campaign Against Racial Discrimination

Campaign Against Racial Discrimination  

Group set up in 1965 to campaign against racism in Britain. Britain had entered testing phase in the immediate post‐Second World War period: the black population had increased enormously, and ...
Freedom Riders

Freedom Riders  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
In the early 1960s, groups of non-violent Black and White protesters against racial discrimination in the US Southern states. They were mostly volunteers from the north who in 1961 began chartering ...
Harold Washington

Harold Washington  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(b. Chicago, 15 Apr. 1922; d. Chicago, 25 Nov. 1987)US; member of Illinois State Legislature 1966–80, member of the US House of Representatives 1981–2, mayor of Chicago 1983–7 The son of a Methodist ...
Thomas E. Dewey

Thomas E. Dewey  

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Overview Page
(b. Oswosso, Michigan, 24 Mar. 1902; d. Bal Harbour, Florida, 16 Mar. 1971)US; Governor of New York 1943–55, Republican presidential candidate 1944, 1948 Born in Michigan and educated at the ...
Reconstruction

Reconstruction  

The period 1865–77 following the American Civil War, during which the Southern states of the Confederacy were controlled by federal government and social legislation, including the granting of new ...
Freedom Riders

Freedom Riders   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
74 words

...Riders In the early 1960s, groups of non-violent Black and White protesters against racial discrimination in the US Southern states. They were mostly volunteers from the north who in 1961 began chartering buses and riding through the Southern states to challenge the segregation laws. Many Freedom Riders were arrested or brutally attacked by Southern White racists, but their actions did help to arouse public opinion in support of the Civil Rights campaign...

Freedom Ride

Freedom Ride   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
110 words

...on a similar campaign undertaken by students in the USA, was a bus trip made by a group of University of Sydney students in February 1965 to towns in northern NSW which contained large Aboriginal populations. Led by Charles Perkins and Jim Spigelman , the participating students, historian Ann Curthoys among them, sought to survey the living conditions of Aborigines and the extent of racial disharmony. They met a particularly hostile reception at Moree and Walgett, where they protested against particular cases of white racial discrimination: Aboriginal...

Burnham, Louis

Burnham, Louis (b. 29 September 1915)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
378 words

...Burnham helped to organize voter registration campaigns and nonviolent marches. And he worked on the 1948 presidential campaign of Henry A. Wallace , the Progressive Party candidate, who believed in racial equality. Upon returning to Harlem in the 1950s, Burnham cofounded the newspaper Freedom . Using his pen as a weapon to fight against racial injustice, Burnham wrote articles on a variety of subjects, such as the murder of Emmett Till . Louis Burnham dedicated his life to fighting against racial injustice. He died in 1960 , but remnants of his...

West Indian Standing Conference

West Indian Standing Conference   Reference library

Ron Ramdin

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
458 words

...was whether West Indians should campaign for equality in cooperation with British organizations, or whether they should assert themselves independently. This debate split the ranks and leadership of the WISC. Although it survived, its effectiveness as a campaigning organization was diminished. By the time of the Brixton riots in 1981 the WISC was seen by many radical Blacks as a powerless force. Ron Ramdin Heineman, Benjamin W., Jr. , The Politics of the Powerless: A Study of the Campaign Against Racial Discrimination (1972) Patterson, Sheila , Dark...

Randolph, A. Philip

Randolph, A. Philip (1889–1979)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Cookman Institute in 1911 , he moved to New York's Harlem, working and attending City College. In response to increasing segregation and discrimination against blacks, Randolph shunned moderate reform and racial integration, as advocated by W. E. B. Du Bois , and emphasized instead socialism and trade unionism. In 1917 , he founded and co‐edited the Messenger , a radical monthly magazine, which campaigned against lynching, opposed U.S. participation in World War I, urged African Americans to resist being drafted to fight for a segregated society, and...

United States of America, Britain, and the Civil Rights Movement

United States of America, Britain, and the Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

Sharae Deckard

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,595 words

...to publicize Britain's deteriorating racial relations and employ non‐violent strategies of direct action to combat discrimination. Spurred by King's exhortation, a number of West Indians already involved in race relations, including C. L. R. James , Ranjana Ash , and David Pitt , joined together with a group of white liberals and clergy to form the Campaign Against Racial Discrimination ( CARD ). Loosely modelled on King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference, CARD's objective was to combat racial discrimination at both the community and the...

Hernandez v. Texas

Hernandez v. Texas   Reference library

Ian Haney-López

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
966 words

...(“Men Here”). The Court then found that, in Jackson County, Mexican Americans suffered group discrimination. The holding in Hernandez rests squarely on evidence of racial subordination. Yet neither the Court nor the Latino/a petitioners argued that race was an issue. Whether the Latino/a experience should be conceptualized in racial terms remains a contentious issue under law and for many Latino/as. This issue is all the more salient because discrimination against Latino/as continues along a range of axes, not the least of which is jury service. One recent...

Racial Profiling

Racial Profiling   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,309 words

...Justice ; Discrimination ; and Laws and Legislation .] Bibliography Amnesty International USA. Threat and Humiliation: Racial Profiling, Domestic Security, and Human Rights in the United States . Washington, D.C.: Amnesty International USA, 2004. Carter, William M., Jr. “ A Thirteenth Amendment Framework for Combating Racial Profiling. ” Harvard Civil Rights–Civil Liberties Law Review 39, no. 1 (Winter 2004): 17–93. Provides an excellent historical context for racial profiling. Harris, David A. Profiles in Injustice: Why Racial Profiling Cannot...

Edwards, Samuel Jules Celestine

Edwards, Samuel Jules Celestine   Reference library

David Killingray

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
363 words

...speaker at large meetings in London and in other towns and cities. At some of these he condemned racial discrimination and harsh British Imperial policies in Africa. In 1892 Edwards became editor of Lux , the weekly journal of the Christian Evidence Society ( CES ). From this new platform and at public meetings up and down the country he served as a prominent apologist for Christianity, arguing against atheism, the drink trade, and racial discrimination. In 1893 Catherine Impey invited Edwards to edit Fraternity , a role he combined with his work for...

Perkins, Charles Nelson

Perkins, Charles Nelson (1936–2000)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
221 words

...frequently hostile, as an organiser of, and spokesman for, the freedom ride through country NSW, which successfully highlighted racial discrimination against Aborigines. Perkins was recruited to the federal Office of Aboriginal Affairs in 1969 ; he became manager of the Aboriginal Development Corporation in 1981 , and secretary of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs in 1984 . During his time with the department he campaigned vigorously for Aboriginal rights, and was often reprimanded for his willingness to criticise superior officers and ministers. His...

King, Martin Luther, Jr.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. (1929–68)   Quick reference

Stewart Wood

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
303 words

...Alabama, in 1955 , and was soon asked to head the ‘Montgomery Improvement Association’ in its campaign for desegregation of city buses. A year later, King founded and headed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference ( SCLC ), and travelled throughout the country to campaign for the emerging civil rights movement. King’s prominence and oratory power served both to unite and to promote various local campaigns against practices of discrimination, some of which resulted in his arrest and imprisonment. On 28 August 1963 , King led a 200,000 strong...

King, Martin Luther

King, Martin Luther (1929–68)   Reference library

Eric Williams

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
600 words

...of King’s activism and the victories of the Civil Rights Movement, the US Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, integrating schools and other public facilities and making employment discrimination illegal. During this same year, King won the Nobel Peace Prize for his advocacy of racial justice. In the final years of his ministry, after years of campaigning for racial equality, King broadened his focus to criticize ‘the triplet of evil’—poverty, militarism, and racism—in America and abroad, as he called it in his famous speech at Riverside Church in New...

Civil Rights Legislation.

Civil Rights Legislation.   Reference library

Mark Tushnet

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
839 words

...era of civil rights legislation. John F. Kennedy had made civil rights an issue during his presidential campaign, but as president he was reluctant to expend substantial political capital on the issue. His successor, Lyndon Johnson , however, forcefully pushed a comprehensive civil rights bill and used his influence to break a Senate filibuster. The act's major provisions banned racial discrimination in public accommodations and prohibited discrimination by employers and unions. The act also authorized the federal government to deny public funds to segregated...

Connerly, Ward

Connerly, Ward (b. 15 June 1939)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
823 words

...in 1993 as a part of a mandate to make the board more diverse. Connerly's campaign against affirmative action was ignited by the empathy that he felt for white applicants who were rejected from the University of California schools. Connerly maintained that these students’ life chances were severely diminished because they were of the wrong race. As a regent, Connerly convinced Governor Wilson that affirmative action was racial preference in disguise and that it discriminated against whites and Asians. In 1995 the Board of Regents proposed a ban on the use...

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