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Calvinism

The Protestant theological system of the French Protestant theologian and reformer John Calvin (1509–64) and his successors, which develops Luther's doctrine of justification by faith ...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
89 words

... Set of doctrines and attitudes derived from the Protestant theologian John Calvin . The Reformed and Presbyterian churches were established in his tradition. Rejecting papal authority and relying on the Bible as the source of religious truth, Calvinism stresses the sovereignty of God and predestination . Calvinism usually subordinates state to church, and cultivates austere morality. The development of these doctrines, particularly predestination, and the rejection of consubstantiation in its eucharistic teaching, caused a split in Protestantism ...

Calvinism

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
426 words

... , The theological thought and ecclesiastical discipline of Jean Calvin as articulated in Calvin's Institutes and in Theodore Beza 's Confession de la foi chrétienne ( 1559 ; Latin version, 1560 ). Calvinism is avowedly hostile to Catholicism, and disputes doctrines such as that of the eucharist , but nonetheless acquiesces in many Catholic doctrines, most centrally Trinitarianism. Calvinism shares with Lutheranism a theology that emphasizes the sole authority of the Bible, the bondage of the human will by sin, and justification of the...

Calvinism

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Jon Balserak

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,489 words

...International Calvinism and the Reformed Church in Hungary and Transylvania (Oxford, 2000). P. Benedict , Christ’s Churches Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism (New Haven, 2002). J. Witte , Jr, The Reformation of Rights (Cambridge, 2007). M. Engammare , On Time, Punctuality, and Discipline in Early Modern Calvinism (Geneva, 2010). D. G. Hart , Calvinism: A History (New Haven, 2013). G. van den Brink et al. (eds), Calvinism and the Making of the European Mind (Leiden, 2014). J. Balserak , Calvinism; A Very Short Introduction ...

Calvinism

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The Oxford Companion to German Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
71 words

... , a Protestant persuasion based on the views of J. Calvin ( 1509–64 ), which became influential during the Counter-Reformation ( see Gegenreformation ). The rulers of the Palatinate and of Brandenburg turned Calvinist and these two states became places of refuge for the Huguenots ( see Hugenotten ). Calvinism was the most puritanical and also the best organized of the Reformation movements, but it was not recognized until the Peace of Westphalia ( see Westfälischer Friede...

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
72 words

... The rigorous form of Protestantism founded by the French reformer and theologian John Calvin ( 1509–64 ) distinguished by belief in the Bible as the rule of faith, denial of human freedom since the Fall, and particularly emphasis on the arbitrary predestination of some to salvation and others to damnation. Calvinism was the creed of the Huguenots, and found congenial soil in Scotland. See also elective affinity , Protestant work ethic...

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Gregory Mellema

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
204 words

... . Based primarily upon the teachings of John Calvin ( 1509–64 ), Calvinism has a doctrinal side and a cultural side. The former stresses the sovereignty of God, the goodness of his creation, the sinfulness of human creatures, the sole authority of Scripture, and (though not as centrally as commonly believed) the predestination of his creatures to eternal life made possible by Christ's redemptive work. The latter (built on the theme of the goodness of creation) stresses an approach to culture which emphasizes involvement, hard work, and material...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
160 words

... . The religious ideas of bodies and individuals who were profoundly influenced by the 16th-cent. church reformer John Calvin , or by his writings. In Calvinism there is typically a strong stress on the sovereignty of God over every area of life, and on the supremacy of scripture as the sole rule of faith and practice, an authority confirmed by the inward witness of the Holy Spirit. The doctrine of predestination was never a leading axiom of Calvin's thought. But many of Calvin's early followers (e.g. Theodore Beza ) were quick to establish the...

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John S. Moir

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
349 words

...of Christ's redeeming death. Calvinism holds that Scripture is the only rule of faith by which God, and one's duties to God and one's neighbour, can be known. The Old and New Testaments are of equal authority. Justification and salvation come by faith alone, rather than by good works. Calvinism presents a comprehensive view of how human life should be ordered—personally, socially, ecclesiastically, and politically—according to the will of God. Calvin believed strongly in the sacraments of baptism and communion but Calvinism, being individualistic and...

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The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
571 words

... Calvinism is the theological, social and political system developed from the thought of John Calvin ( 1509–64 ), chiefly based on his Institutes (first published 1536 ). Calvinism was influential not only in Christian thought, notably in the development of Reformed Protestantism, but also in political theory. Calvin put his own ideas into practice in Geneva after 1541 when his influence was paramount. Calvinism focuses on the Bible as determinant of proper doctrine and practice, and stresses the power and grace of God through Jesus Christ. Calvin...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
301 words

...but tends towards Zwinglianism. The most influential document of strict Calvinism was the Second Helvetic Confession of 1566 , which was accepted in many Protestant countries. Calvinism gained considerable influence in France in the early 1560s; until the Wars of Religion it seemed possible that the Huguenots might gain political ascendancy. After the revolt of the Netherlands , sparked in 1566 , the Dutch Reformed Church was dominated by Calvinists. Calvinism also replaced Lutheranism in parts of Germany, Transylvania, and Hungary . In...

Calvinism

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... The doctrines of the French reformer Jean Calvin ( 1509–64 ), particularly as expressed in his Institutio Religionis Christianae ( 1536 ). Some chief points of his teaching are: (1) the transcendence of God; (2) the total depravity of natural man, who can achieve nothing without God; (3) the predestination of certain men for salvation through Christ, made by God before the world began; (4) the sole authority of the scriptures and the Holy Spirit; and (5) the enforcement of the church’s public discipline by the...

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The Concise Oxford Companion to American Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Literature
Length:
395 words

... , system of theological thought found in the doctrinal expressions of the Reformed and Presbyterian churches, which derives its name from John Calvin (1509–64), the French Protestant reformer. In Calvin’s own day, the element of his teaching that involved him in most conflict was his interpretation of Holy Communion, which differs from that of Luther, but his followers have been mainly distinguished by their emphasis upon predestination. The distinctive characteristics of Calvinism were formulated at the Synod of Dort (1618–19), in opposition to the...

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,809 words

..., A. Duke , and G. Lewis : Calvinism in Europe, 1540–1620 (Cambridge, 1994) P. C. Finney : Seeing beyond the Word: Visual Arts and the Calvinist Tradition (Grand Rapids, MI, 1999) C. Randall : Building Codes: The Aesthetics of Calvinism in Early Modern Europe (Philadelphia, 1999) P. Benedict : A Social History of Calvinism (New Haven, 2002) G. Murdock : Beyond Calvin: The Intellectual, Political and Cultural World of Europe's Reformed Churches, c. 1540–1620 (Basingstoke, 2004) C. R. Joby : Calvinism and the Arts: A Re-assessment ...

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The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
408 words

... , system of theological thought found in the doctrinal expressions of the Reformed and Presbyterian churches, which derives its name from John Calvin ( 1509–64 ), the French Protestant reformer. In Calvin's own day, the element of his teaching that involved him in most conflict was his interpretation of Holy Communion, which differs from that of Luther , but his followers have been mainly distinguished by their emphasis upon predestination. The distinctive characteristics of Calvinism were formulated at the Synod of Dort ( 1618–19 ), in opposition to...

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Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,543 words

...to break or elude the control of the Calvinist Church.” The conclusion that Enlightened Protestantism constituted a rejection of Calvinism for Arminianism is also problematic, however. It once again tends to defend Calvinism as a static and monolithic religion centered on a few central doctrines such as original sin and predestination. Trevor-Roper denies the influence of Calvinism on the Enlightenment by defining Calvinism as a “narrow and rigid” creed suffering from “intellectual stagnation.” Calvinists are “grim and mean” thinkers; they are nothing but...

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The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
492 words

...Calvinism entails controversial beliefs which affected the faith and writings of the Brontës. John Calvin ( 1509–64 ), born in Picardy, was intended for a career in the Catholic Church, but, convinced of his mission to reform it, resigned his benefices in 1534 . In 1535–6 , after moving to Berne to escape persecution, he published his seminal work, Christianiae Religionis Institutio , defining and vindicating Protestantism . In Geneva in 1556–8 he helped to establish the reformed faith. His preaching, incessant doctrinal disputes, and laborious...

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J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
349 words

... , the creed of Jean Calvin ( 1509–64 ), was largely as formulated in his Institutes , published 1536 . Calvin was greatly influenced by St Augustine in inferring predestination from divine foreknowledge, and he therefore presumed that the elect, chosen for salvation, were known to God from before the creation. Free will was an illusion: ‘we call predestination God’s eternal decree, by which he determined with himself what he willed to become of each man…eternal life is fore-ordained for some, eternal damnation for others…it is very wicked merely...

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Frank Kelleter

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Were it not a theology, one might confuse Calvinism with an ideology of the American Revolution: it argues against the institutional power of established authorities; it does so in the name of higher, universal principles; it stresses the importance of a direct, sensual discernment of truth over the dogmatism of politically entrenched interests. What Calvinist theologians call a “sense of the heart”—the inwardly moving, irresistible presence of God’s grace in the believer—accords well with the Enlightenment’s concept of a “moral” or “common sense”...

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
6,842 words

...chapters deal specifically with Calvinism. Kendall, R. T. Calvin and English Calvinism to 1649 . Reprint, Oxford, 1981. A detailed study of the development of Reformed theology in England. Kingdon, Robert M. Geneva and the Coming of the Wars of Religion in France, 1553–63 . Geneva, 1956. ——. Geneva and the Consolidation of the French Protestant Movement, 1564–1572 . Geneva, 1967. Two seminal studies of the Genevan influence on French Calvinism. Pettegree, Andrew , Alaistair Duke , and Gillian Lewis , eds. Calvinism in Europe, 1540–1620 . Cambridge,...

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A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
148 words

... , the creed of Jean Calvin ( 1509–64 ), was largely as formulated in his Institutes , published 1536 . Calvin was greatly influenced by St Augustine in inferring predestination from divine foreknowledge, and he therefore presumed that the elect, chosen for salvation, were known to God from before the creation. Free will was an illusion. Church organization followed from that basic premiss, that the chosen of God—the elect—should share government with the ministers. Taken into Scotland from Calvin's Geneva in 1559 by John Knox , Calvinism became...

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