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Calendar of Modern Letters

Subject: Literature

(1925–7), a literary periodical, first a monthly, then a quarterly, edited by E. Rickword and Douglas Garman. It published fiction by D. H. Lawrence, Pirandello, A. E. Coppard, ...

Calendar of Modern Letters

Calendar of Modern Letters   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
146 words

...of Bloomsbury to be on the whole frivolous and sentimental, and praised the critical approach of I. A. Richards . Towards Standards of Criticism: Selections from the Calendar of Modern Letters was published in 1933 with an introduction by F. R. Leavis , and Scrutiny upheld many of its...

Calendar of Modern Letters, The

Calendar of Modern Letters, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... of Modern Letters, The , a journal of criticism, poetry, and fiction founded in 1925 by Edgell Rickword , Douglas Garman , and Bertram Higgins as a forum for critical discourse of a standard they felt the Criterion , had initiated but failed to maintain. Poetry by Roy Campbell , Siegfried Sassoon , Robert Graves , and Laura Riding was published and Llewellyn Powys and William Plomer were among the contributors of short stories. The Calendar was noted for its consistent attention to European literature, articles on Rimbaud, Baudelaire,...

Calendar of Modern Letters

Calendar of Modern Letters  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1925–7),a literary periodical, first a monthly, then a quarterly, edited by E. Rickword and Douglas Garman. It published fiction by D. H. Lawrence, Pirandello, A. E. Coppard, Gerhardie, and others; ...
1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...the emergence of writing is full of riddles, then the enigma of the first alphabet is even more perplexing. That the alphabet reached the modern world via the ancient Greeks is well known—the word ‘alphabet’ comes from the first two of the Greek letters, alpha and beta—but we have no clear idea of how and when the alphabet appeared in Greece; how the Greeks thought of adding letters standing for the vowels as well as the consonants; and how, even more fundamentally, the idea of an alphabet occurred to the pre-Greek societies at the eastern end of the...

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...systems Ancient systems of chronology—intimately associated with agriculture and astrology—have been identified among several maritime Southeast Asian peoples. These age-old and now obsolete *calendars manifest a strong Indian influence. For example, the Batak possess a chronological system imbued with Sanskrit-derived terminology that is used to find auspicious moments. Regional versions of the octaval calendar, a rather simple system based on an eight-year cycle, have enjoyed great popularity among the Muslim communities of maritime Southeast Asia for...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The rise of a unified public sense of time also testified to the drive of middle-class reformers to make plebeian culture as standardized and controllable as possible. The many varied work rhythms which Thompson described as part of task-orientation were overridden by the demands of factory timetables. A public time schedule, fitting leisure around a predominantly regular working week, was becoming the norm, and its eventual dominance was to drive many heterodox and marginalized temporalities out of sight. The triumph of the public calendar was clearly...

31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of Transylvania, during the autonomous province’s golden age, was part of this process. Romanian printing with Cyrillic characters reappeared in 1733 in a calendar printed in Braşov and produced by the schoolteacher Petcu Şoanul. Enlisting the help of experienced Hungarian printers, Bishop Petru Pavel Aaron refurbished the Blaj printing works with new Cyrillic and Latin founts, as well as high-quality materials and typographic equipment, to produce large numbers of Romanian school *textbooks and *primers . This was a step towards a new age of secular...

41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...dates to the period of the Mongol invasions, when fire destroyed countless buildings and their contents. In China, by contrast, *print runs were much larger than the tens of copies normal in Korea; thus, there was little incentive to popularize the use of movable type, because blocks could be used to make dozens of impressions. Sohn has pointed out that, in Korea, works printed with metal type were printed in relatively small quantities and include a wide variety of titles. On the other hand, works in great demand, such as *calendars , were printed from...

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,203 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...The Lupercal and the Ides of March, for example, which in the play seem to be successive days, are actually a month apart ( see Calendar, Shakespeare ’s), while the battle of Philippi was actually two battles, the deaths of Cassius and Brutus separated by 20 days rather than the few hours which seem to intervene in the play. Plutarch, however, supplies only the barest summaries of the speeches made at Caesar’s funeral by Brutus and Antony, the latter of which becomes the turning point of Shakespeare’s play, as well as one of the most frequently quoted...

Women Local and Family Historians

Women Local and Family Historians   Quick reference

Joan Thirsk

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...century some became distinguished editors of texts for local history. Lucy Toulmin Smith edited The Itinerary of John Leland ( 1906 ), Mary Bateson , Records of the Borough of Leicester ( 1899 ) and Cambridge Guild Records ( 1903 ), and Maud Sellers , a York Memorandum Book ( 1912 ) and manuscripts of The York Mercers and Merchant Adventurers, 1356–1917 ( 1918 ). Other women, increasingly after 1900 , became editors of single volumes for local record societies (see E. L. C. Mullins , Texts and Calendars: An Analytical Guide to Serial...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of letters from and to the editor, and verses in praise of the author, of the text, of the editor, or of the printer are also quite commonly present; their authors were generally contemporaries of the editor—perhaps a student, a colleague, or a local worthy. This historical evidence is, in part, what makes each edition unique—yet it is habitually ignored. The exact content of the surviving c .29,000 editions published in the last 50 years of the 15 th century is still not known, despite the important position they occupy within the transmission of the...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the dog. For many clients, the whole psalter became superfluous and so scribes omitted it, leaving instead a calendar, the new Hours of the Virgin, the seven Penitential Psalms with Litany, and the Office of the Dead. This was the *book of hours , the most famous and the most common MS of the last part of the Middle Ages. It was entirely a lay creation, for private use at home. A second major result of increasing lay literacy was the production of MSS in the vernacular. With a few and rare exceptions (most notably in late Anglo-Saxon England), almost all...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...a single copy. Jesuit Mission printing included annual church calendars and various devotional works and classical authors in Latin—and, remarkably, some devotional works in a romanized transcription of Japanese as well. The casting of a Japanese *fount made Japanese publications possible, too, and in 1592 the Jesuits printed part of the Heike monogatari (Tale of the Heike) in romanized transcription: this was the first work of Japanese literature to appear in print. The Korean tradition of movable type ( see 41 ), which goes back to the 13 th ...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... 1715 Tamil *translation of the New Testament—the first such translation in any Indian language. The *fount bore a close resemblance to the letters in the palm-leaf MSS, while the language used was a version of demotic Tamil spoken in and around Tranquebar. The type had originally been cast at Halle in Germany, but it became necessary to cast smaller founts for the various publications undertaken by Ziegenbalg. A typefoundry was set up in Poryar, the first in India, and this was followed by the establishment of the first modern *paper mill in the country...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...constituting more than 60 per cent of the titles, religious publications totalling less than a quarter, and popular publications ( *calendars and primers) forming the third largest category. Fewer than 2 per cent of publications were devoted to history, geography, science, and technology; these, intended for a narrow audience, were issued in small print runs. Between 1727 and 1755 , the Russian Academy of Sciences press published about half of all new books and over three-quarters of secular books. Its products, including Russia’s first scholarly...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...get enough of an education to run a household, and slaves were also sometimes literate. With wealth and leisure, education could continue, from the elementary level through more advanced study of language, composition, history, and myth, to the gymnasia that eventually spread Greek physical and intellectual values throughout the Hellenized world. People wrote *letters , contracts, and wills, and court cases depended on written documents. It is not safe, however, to assume that people in ancient Greece read in precisely the same way that modern Europeans do....

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...a useful, if far from comprehensive, indicator of the book trade in the early modern period. Their purpose was to advertise and to generate interest, not to serve as comprehensive bibliographical aids: it is reckoned that they include only about 20–25 per cent of the books actually available. Their focus is primarily on books of scholarly interest, especially in Latin, with a potential for wide geographical dissemination, while small works, books of sermons, prayer books, university *theses , and calendars scarcely feature. Fuller coverage was attempted by...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of a rudimentary public sphere. In the painful process of nation-building, the publication of periodicals and pamphlets, the prime genres of the first half of the century, contributed to the circulation of opinion; some 6,000 titles, for example, were published in Mexico between 1821 and 1850 . Throughout the continent, a cosmopolitan liberal elite of men of letters who combined political activity, legislation, and literary work played a disproportionate role in shaping local book production. Among the new types of publication were accounts of the wars of...

BC

BC  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ab]Before Christ, meaning the pre‐Christian era in the Gregorian calendar, running backwards from the year 1 bc as the year before the calculated, and back‐projected, year in which Christ was ...
dates

dates  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Dates in old letters and documents take various forms, not always consistent with the modern calendar. There are also discrepancies between English and continental dating systems.Throughout the ...

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