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Caddoan Languages

Subject: Linguistics

A family of the Great Plains in the United States.LANGUAGE LISTArikara: also called Arikari, Arikaris, Arikaree, Ree, Ris. 20 speakers remain in USA. Ethnic population: 3,000 as of 1997. ...

Caddoan Languages

Caddoan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
241 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Languages . A family of the Great Plains in the United States. Figure 1. Subgrouping of Caddoan Languages LANGUAGE LIST Arikara: also called Arikari, Arikaris, Arikaree, Ree, Ris. 20 speakers remain in USA. Ethnic population: 3,000 as of 1997 . On Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota. Not inherently intelligible with Pawnee. Bilingualism in English. Most or all speakers are middle-aged or older. Arikara instructional material has been published for use in a language teaching program. Caddo: also called Kado, Caddoe, Kadohadacho. 25 speakers remain...

Caddoan Languages

Caddoan Languages  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
A family of the Great Plains in the United States.LANGUAGE LISTArikara: also called Arikari, Arikaris, Arikaree, Ree, Ris. 20 speakers remain in USA. Ethnic population: 3,000 as of 1997. On ...
Iroquoian Languages

Iroquoian Languages  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
The Iroquoian family is indigenous to eastern North America. It may be remotely related to two other families, Caddoan and Siouan. The Southern branch of the family is represented by ...
Caddoan

Caddoan   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
20 words

... Family of languages in North America, spoken or formerly spoken in part of the central plains in the...

North American languages

North American languages   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
223 words

...family; also Muskogean , in parts of an area of much greater fragmentation in the south‐east. Caddoan and Siouan languages are or again were spoken in the central plains; a proposed Macro-Siouan would class them tentatively, but only tentatively, with Iroquoian. To the west, the two most widespread families are Uto-Aztecan , which extends into parts of northern and central Mexico, and Athabaskan , in both the states of the American South‐west and in western Canada and Alaska. But the South‐west is a fragmented area which includes e.g. ...

Distribution of Major Groups circa 1500

Distribution of Major Groups circa 1500  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

...horse, the upland Great Plains were occupied by bands of mobile hunter-gatherers, at least some of them speakers of Kiowa-Tanoan languages. Wooded valleys of the main western tributaries of the Mississippi River, particularly the Missouri River, were occupied by sedentary farmers who had moved upstream from the Eastern Woodlands late in the pre-Columbian era. These were mainly speakers of Caddoan and Siouan languages. These farming peoples typically lived in villages of large multifamily earth lodges, and some were strongly matrilineal. Algonquian-speaking...

North American Languages

North American Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,286 words
Illustration(s):
1

...this region also contains (or contained) members of other families (Iroquoian, Algonkian, Siouan, and Caddoan), as well as several “language isolates”—languages which are not assigned to any family, such as Natchez, Atakapa, Chitimacha, Yuchi, and Tunica. North of Texas on the Great Plains, we find the four Caddoan languages—Caddo (formerly of Louisiana and eastern Texas), Pawnee, Arikara, and Wichita—and most of the Siouan family, about fifteen languages, some of whose best-known representatives are Dakota, Osage, and Crow. The greatest diversity in this...

Polysynthesis

Polysynthesis   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
809 words

...of polysynthesis in Mohawk (Iroquoian): (1) S-a-ha-its-ahser-uny-a-na- .’ iter-fact-MsS-‘fish’-nomal-‘make’ purp-pun ‘He went back to prepare the fish.’ This eight-morpheme word is the equivalent of a seven-word sentence in English. Some other families that contain PLs include Caddoan, Eskimo-Aleut, Wakashan, Tanoan, Uto-Aztecan, Gunwinjguan (Australia), Chukchee, Ainu, and Mapuche. Polysynthesis can be broken down into several components, corresponding to the different types of morphology seen in (1). First, PLs always have pronominal/ agreement inflections...

Siouan Languages

Siouan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,149 words
Illustration(s):
1

...linked Siouan with Caddoan, Iroquoian, and Keresan; see Chafe 1973 . 1. Distribution The Southeastern group, spoken from the western Carolinas to Louisiana, contains Ofo, Biloxi, and Tutelo, all now extinct (see Map 1). There apparently were others (e.g. Woccon) at the time of the first European contacts, but very little is known of them. Of those which we know better, Ofo and Biloxi appear to have been quite similar, but Tutelo differed extensively from them—perhaps enough to obviate the subgrouping. Map 1. Location of Siouan Languages . (Based on research...

Incorporation

Incorporation   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,134 words

...heads the ordinary direct object of the verb: (2) Wa'-k-hninu -'   ne  ( thikv )  ka-nakt-a '. fact-1sS-buy-punc NE that pre-bed-suf ‘I bought the/a/that bed.’ Not all languages have noun incorporation. Rather, it is a characteristic feature of a particular typological class, the polysynthetic languages. It is found, for example, in Iroquoian, Caddoan, Tanoan, Nahuatlan, some languages of Northern Australia, Chukchee/Koryak, Ainu, and Mapuche. There are important restrictions on what thematic relationship can hold between an IN and the host verb. The...

Iroquoian Languages

Iroquoian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,159 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Languages . The Iroquoian family is indigenous to eastern North America. It may be remotely related to two other families, Caddoan and Siouan. The Southern branch of the family is represented by a single language, Cherokee. The Northern branch, at the time of first European contact, consisted of Tuscarora, Nottoway, Meherrin, Huron, Petun, Laurentian, Wenro, Erie, Neutral, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Susquehannock (Andaste), Oneida, and Mohawk (see Map 1). Seven Iroquoian languages are still spoken: Cherokee in North Carolina and Oklahoma; and the...

Migration and Pre-Columbian Era

Migration and Pre-Columbian Era  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

...maize and other domesticates. Large towns appeared, with flat-topped platform mounds clearly showing the architectural influence of developments in central Mexico . Four regional variants in the Southeast, all known as Mississippian, are designated as Middle, South Appalachian, Caddoan, and Plaquemine Mississippian, respectively. Northern variants are known as Oneota and Fort Ancient. Native Americans living north of the Great Lakes, in the High Plains, in the Great Basin, in California , and along the Northwest Coast remained hunters and gatherers throughout...

Writing and Written Language

Writing and Written Language   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
13,055 words
Illustration(s):
2

...syllable shapes; this difference can be crucial in the choice between an alphabet and a syllabary. Even more important may be the depth of phonological complexity. In some languages, like Lakhota, a Siouan language of the northern Plains in North America, the basic or underlying forms of morphemes are generally similar to their surface realizations. In others, like Caddo, a Caddoan language of the southern Plains, there have been so many phonological developments since the morphology became established that underlying and surface representations barely resemble...

Indian History and Culture

Indian History and Culture   Reference library

Melissa L. Meyer, Dean R. Snow, Dean R. Snow, Charles L. Cohen, Melissa L. Meyer, Russell Thornton, Donald A. Grinde, and Leah Dilworth

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,114 words

...horse, the upland Great Plains were occupied by bands of mobile hunter-gatherers, at least some of them speakers of Kiowa-Tanoan languages. Wooded valleys of the main western tributaries of the Mississippi River , particularly the Missouri River, were occupied by sedentary farmers who had moved upstream from the Eastern Woodlands late in the pre-Columbian era. These were mainly speakers of Caddoan and Siouan languages. These farming peoples typically lived in villages of large multifamily earth lodges, and some were strongly matrilineal....

Native American History and Culture

Native American History and Culture   Reference library

Dean R. Snow, Dean R. Snow, Päivi H. Hoikkala, John P. Bowes, and John P. Bowes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...horse, the upland Great Plains were occupied by bands of mobile hunter-gatherers, at least some of them speakers of Kiowa-Tanoan languages. Wooded valleys of the main western tributaries of the Mississippi River, particularly the Missouri River, were occupied by sedentary farmers who had moved upstream from the Eastern Woodlands late in the pre-Columbian era. These were mainly speakers of Caddoan and Siouan languages. These farming peoples typically lived in villages of large multifamily earth lodges, and some were strongly matrilineal....

North America

North America   Reference library

Charlotte Beck, Charlotte Beck, Don E. Dumond, Jean-Luc Pilon, David G. Anderson, Douglas B. Bamforth, Linea Sundstrom, Gregson Schachner, Steven R. Simms, Kenneth M. Ames, Adrian Praetzellis, and Mary C. Beaudry

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
23,798 words

...“Caddoan.” Caddoan peoples interacted with Mississippian peoples in trade and possibly in religious beliefs. Between 1000 BP and 400 BP, a variety of styles appeared across the Southeast and into Arkansas and Texas, known collectively as the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Most of the content of these styles centers on warfare and supernatural beings, suggesting a belief in supernatural control over military conflict. It is now believed that the artifacts bearing these styles derived from several different social institutions within Mississippian and Caddoan...

Caddoan

Caddoan   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
113 words
Caddoan

Caddoan   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
115 words
Caddoan

Caddoan   Reference library

Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
77 words
Caddoan

Caddoan   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
37 words

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