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Business and Human Rights

At first glance, the question of business and human rights can seem both simple and irrelevant. The question can appear irrelevant because sovereign states have traditionally been the ...

Business and Human Rights

Business and Human Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,517 words

... and Human Rights At first glance, the question of business and human rights can seem both simple and irrelevant. The question can appear irrelevant because sovereign states have traditionally been the duty-bearers (those with obligations under international law to respect and protect human rights) against whom human rights can be claimed and through whom they are enforced. Although international human rights laws and covenants create universal rights held by all, the obligations they create are solely for sovereign states. If states are the legal...

Business and Human Rights

Business and Human Rights  

At first glance, the question of business and human rights can seem both simple and irrelevant. The question can appear irrelevant because sovereign states have traditionally been the duty-bearers ...
Women

Women   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,844 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...with which to demand other rights and privileges which went with the full humanity claimed by men. It was impossible for women to demand the right to be seen as sexual subjects rather than as sexual objects, for example, and equally difficult for them to claim the capacity of *genius . The *Enlightenment [32] insistence on human rationality and the *natural rights of man, like the attacks on hereditary and caste privileges, all inevitably suggested possible avenues and freedoms for women. But increasingly historians and literary scholars have commented...

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1770 and 1830 . The conflicts which were played out within the cultural practices of the period as debates between individualism, which accorded centrality to individual property rights, and communitarianism, which advocated common ownership of land and property; between common law and communal custom; and between market-determined wage and customary wastage, all related to the practice and rhetoric of ‘improvement’. Improvement as a practice referred to the management and cultivation of land to render it more profitable; as a discursive and rhetorical...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...which managed to combine radical patriotism, constitutionalism, and Christianity, together with the rights of man and socialist mutuality; ‘All for each—each for all’: Ye nobles of nature, ye scions of fame, Ye foremost in liberty's van, Hoist your standard aloft, and loudly proclaim The duties and rights of man. When nature first stamped us with life and with form It was at equality's shrine; Truth, justice, and reason, united, conform, to hallow the sacred design … Our motto is equal rights and laws Our call is freedom's call Our cause, the cause, the common...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,891 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...war and by the loss of the colonies. That national humiliation proved to be a catalyst which prompted a reappraisal of a host of British ideals and systems. The conflict had hinged on questions of representation, but had also aroused wider debate about liberty—and the supposedly ‘freeborn’ British had been seen as constitutional transgressors and violators of human rights. Anti-slavery provided the opportunity of restoring the British belief that they, above all others, were a people wedded to liberty. After all, what institution seemed more violent and more...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...—and other fictional literature which contributed so much to feeding the conquerors’ imagination and their dreams of glory. Although the Spanish Crown attempted to prohibit the export of non-religious popular literature (of which more than 50 titles in at least 316 editions were printed in Spain during the 16 th century) to the New World, its flow was steady throughout the first century of colonial rule. Spain and Portugal attempted to control the production and reading of books in their colonies, both by issuing exclusive printing and trade rights and...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and throughout this period fluctuating demand for labour during the course of the year left many in great hardship during winter. The urban poor experienced a different cycle of poverty, facing extreme distress during trade slumps and vulnerability to high food prices [ see *famine ]. Instability was marked by rioting over food prices and military recruitment, by industrial disputes, political conflict, and, in the 1790s, by fears of *revolution [1] spreading from France. Commoners contested land enclosure and loss of their customary rights. The...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...newspapers and to programmes of respectable reading for boys and girls. Similarly, the secular utilitarian ideologies of free trade and political economy, espoused by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (SDUK), were widely promoted in its Penny Magazine and other publications. At the other end of the political spectrum, radical political ideas circulating in the first two decades of the 19 th century grew out of a profoundly literate working-class culture, steeped in the notion of human rights expounded by Paine in * Rights of Man ....

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...atmosphere by bidding up the cost of reprint rights as well. The rise of media conglomerates has been blamed for a marked decline in American publishing, measured by the quality of the industry’s product. The complaint echoed the lament of designers and typographers, adjusting to the development in the 1970s of *photocomposition and *offset printing , that labour-saving automation was destroying aesthetic standards. Some observers have challenged those assumptions, arguing that the book business needed to overcome inefficiencies. Moreover,...

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,019 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...printing and the block book in the ultimate development of the print revolution, the lessons learned during the years of developing digital content were not lost. Large corporate investments in the digitization of content, improvements in delivery software, and the vital experience in conceptualizing hypertext and in obtaining and then protecting digital rights, had profound effects on the development of the e-book, even if the largest stakeholders ultimately decided to stand on the sidelines and await further signs of progress. The invention and growth of...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the mercy of men depicted as liars, cheats, frauds, hypocrites, rogues, and sadists. Encountering the complexity of social forms through which people in the world expressed themselves at first challenged and bewildered that group which, by and large, men had always restricted to the household and to which they had denied participation in worldly business. While sentimental fiction publicized its private virtues, what good could these be in a public world unless women had the economic and political power advocated by Wollstonecraft? Yet to be experienced, a...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...often unobtainable, and seldom of high quality. The limited capacity of colonial printers and the high costs of raw materials ensured that the book trade continued to be dominated by imports, and most Australian writers sought to have their books produced in England. The colonial market was nevertheless substantial: booksellers’ and auctioneers’ catalogues from the 1840s show between 10,000 and 30,000 books advertised each year. The London publisher Thomas *Tegg ’s sons James and Samuel arrived in 1834 . James established a business in Sydney, Samuel...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...capacity to wage successful war against the French Revolution; and Paine's vision, an inspiration for many later radicals, went beyond Smith's in comprehending explicit measures of redistribution, using social insurance as a method of complementing the equalizing and democratizing potential contained in Smith's system of natural liberty [ see *natural rights ]. Although radicals and other opponents of the war with France continued to call on Smith's terminology to condemn ‘unproductive’ classes and the high taxes that supported ‘Old Corruption’, as well as the...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the rights of Dissenters and, if possible, to advance them. The deputies did little more than hold ground already taken, until in 1813 they obtained an Act extending toleration to Unitarians, which had been denied under the Act of 1689 . They also played an important part in the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts in 1828 , which removed the seventeenth-century impediments to participation of Dissenting laymen in national and local government. But by that time Unitarian Dissenting leadership was under challenge from the newly confident and...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...others as religious or institutional collections, others prefigured municipal libraries. 7 The Revolution and afterwards One of the first initiatives of the Revolution was to abolish royal censorship and to proclaim the freedom of writing and printing, both included in the Declaration of the Rights of Man of 26 August 1789 . The office of the Librairie and even copyright deposit, seen as a repressive measure, were terminated, along with printers’ and all other guilds. The copyright legislation adopted by the Convention in 1793 (a maximum protection of ten...

Abbreviations

Abbreviations   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,772 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., and human-immunodeficiency virus virus ). And although the redundancies may be passable in speech—especially with unfamiliar acronyms—they should be avoided in edited writing. A slightly different type of redundancy arises if you define ATC as the air-traffic control system (the hyphen is preferable for the phrasal adjective ) but later write ATC system , as here: “The third factor I mentioned is the air traffic control system (ATC). The United States ATC is the finest system [delete system ] in the world, and on a good weather day, with runways and...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is not observed by all publishers, it is valid and helpful. Professional magazines follow it frequently, and such authorities as David Lambuth support it. The reason is that the comma before the and helps the reader to see instantly that the last two adjectives are not joined. In the example cited, suppose the last comma in the series is omitted; freight and communications costs could then be read as one category, though it is not meant to be. David W. Ewing , Writing for Results in Business, Government, and the Professions 358 ( 1974 ). Examples abound....

Disability Rights Commission

Disability Rights Commission  

(DRC)The DRC was established by the Labour government in 1999 and, at the time, was the UK's third equality commission alongside the Commission for Racial Equality and the Equal Opportunities ...
blacking

blacking  

Is a form of secondary industrial action in which workers refuse to handle materials, products, or equipment because they originate either from a company engaged in a dispute with its own workforce ...

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