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Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

A publication of the nonprofit Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science whose mission is to educate the public about issues relating to war and peace. It is best known for its doomsday ...

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... of the Atomic Scientists a publication of the nonprofit Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science whose mission is to educate the public about issues relating to war and peace. It is best known for its doomsday clock...

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,157 words

... of the Atomic Scientists . The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists was the first periodical committed to nuclear disarmament and opposing various technological threats to human survival, and it remains prominent among such publications. It was founded in 1945 in Chicago by scientists and engineers working on the U.S. nuclear weapons program during World War II. Horrified at the prospect of a nuclear arms race, they wanted to ensure that atomic energy was used only for peaceful purposes. History of the Bulletin The Bulletin is one of several...

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists  

A publication of the nonprofit Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science whose mission is to educate the public about issues relating to war and peace. It is best known for its doomsday clock.[...]
Professional Movements against Nuclear Weapons

Professional Movements against Nuclear Weapons  

Throughout the nuclear age, various antinuclear professional movements have emerged. These professional groups, which typically started first in Western countries and then spread worldwide, provided ...
International Campaigns for Nuclear Disarmament

International Campaigns for Nuclear Disarmament  

The struggle against nuclear weapons began even before they existed.1945–1954During World War II, many scientists working on the Manhattan Project (the U.S. effort to produce an atomic bomb) ...
United States Peace Movements, 1800–1945

United States Peace Movements, 1800–1945  

The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945, although welcomed by some, provoked an immediate outcry. The many peace movement voices, silent or actively prowar, again ...
Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Sakharov  

(1921–89)Russian nuclear physicist. Having helped to develop the Soviet hydrogen bomb, he campaigned against nuclear proliferation and called for Soviet–American cooperation. He fought courageously ...
Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1879–1955)German-born physicist, a thinker of astounding insight, author of the special and general theories of relativity, and winner of the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics for his work on the ...
doomsday clock

doomsday clock   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...the time remaining until civilization is destroyed in a nuclear war. It became a famous symbol of nuclear destruction when it first appeared on the cover of the June 1947 issue of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists . The cover depicted a large clock face, called “The Clock of Doom,” that was set at seven minutes to midnight, and an editorial stated that the clock “represents the state of mind of those whose closeness to the development of atomic energy does not permit them to forget ... the survival of civilization ... hangs in the balance.” The hands...

Professional Movements against Nuclear Weapons

Professional Movements against Nuclear Weapons   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,497 words

...Goldsmith founded the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists in 1945 , which became a sounding board for scientists around the world who were concerned about nuclear weapons. In November 1945 the organizing meeting for the Federation of the Atomic Scientists (later renamed the Federation of the American Scientists) gave impetus to the emerging scientist movement in the United States. The financing of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists and the Federation of the Atomic Scientists ( FAS ) came from the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists, whose chairman...

Civil Defense

Civil Defense   Reference library

Allan M. Winkler and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the government urged military contractors to locate factories in remote areas less vulnerable to an urban-based attack. The Truman administration also supported a shelter program until the costs began to appear prohibitive. The administration then began cajoling citizens to “duck and cover”—drop to their knees and cover their heads—in an atomic attack. With the development of the hydrogen bomb in the 1950s, the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration promoted a policy of emergency evacuation, changing the orientation, the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists ...

Doom

Doom   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...(Old English dōm ) The original meaning was ‘law’ or ‘judgement’, and a ‘doomsman’ was a judge. The book of laws compiled by King Alfred was called the Domboc. See also deemster . Doomsday Book See domesday book . Doomsday clock A symbolic clock maintained since 1947 by the journal Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists as a means of conveying how close humanity is to catastrophic destruction (represented by the stroke of midnight). It was initially set at seven minutes to midnight, and has been periodically adjusted (backwards as well as forwards) in...

United States Peace Movements, 1945–1956

United States Peace Movements, 1945–1956   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,814 words

...scientists appealed to government leaders to disarm and warned the public to understand the significance and dangers of the atomic bomb. Through the Federation of Atomic Scientists ( 1945 ; later the Federation of American Scientists, 1946 ) and the Atomic Energy Commission ( 1946 ), pro-peace scientists urged international cooperation and civilian control over their deadly new technology. Foretelling unimaginable disaster, militant peace-minded scientists organized the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists ( 1946 ). The Bulletin of the Atomic...

Nuclear Protest Movements

Nuclear Protest Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Scientists—quickly changed to the Federation of American Scientists—a group that at its height had some 3,000 members. Two other new entities, the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists (a small group of prominent scientists headed by Einstein) and the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (edited by Rabinowitch), became close allies. Pacifist groups like the Fellowship of Reconciliation , the War Resisters League , and the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom also worked to publicize nuclear dangers, as did the burgeoning world federalist...

Civil Defense

Civil Defense   Reference library

Allan M. Winkler and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
517 words

...the government urged military contractors to locate factories in remote areas less vulnerable to an urban-based attack. The Truman administration also supported a shelter program until the costs began to appear prohibitive. The administration then began cajoling citizens to “Duck and Cover”—drop to their knees and cover their heads—in an atomic attack. With the development of the hydrogen bomb in the 1950s, the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration promoted a policy of emergency evacuation, changing the orientation, the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists ...

Einstein, Albert

Einstein, Albert   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
730 words

...peace manifesto in history, the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, against the danger of nuclear war and for the purpose of raising mankind’s awareness of the necessity of disarmament. [ See also Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists ; Ethics of Nuclear War ; Germany, Peace Movements of ; Nuclear Controversies in the United States ; Nuclear Disarmament, International Campaigns for ; Nuclear Nonproliferation ; Oppenheimer and the Atomic Bomb ; Russell-Einstein Manifesto ; Science and Peace ; World War I, Pacifism in ; and World War I and Peace Movements,...

Nuclear Disarmament, International Campaigns for

Nuclear Disarmament, International Campaigns for   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,338 words

...substantially larger numbers of people concluded that, with the advent of nuclear weapons, the world stood on the brink of destruction. Arguing that the choice was “One World or None,” scientists organized the Federation of American Scientists, the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists, the British Atomic Scientists Association, and the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists ; pacifists worked through the War Resisters’ International, the Fellowship of Reconciliation, and the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom; and still other concerned...

Rotblat, Joseph

Rotblat, Joseph   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,906 words

..., and John Finney . Sir Joseph (Jozef) Rotblat . Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, London, 2007. [Includes a concise and definitive overview of Rotblat’s life, causes, and his scientific work.] Hinde, Robert , and Joseph Rotblat . War No More: Eliminating Conflict in the Nuclear Age . London: Pluto Press, 2003. Rotblat, Joseph . Leaving the Bomb Project. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 41 (August 1985): 16–19. [Rotblat’s personal story.] Rotblat, Joseph , Jack Steinberger , and Bhalchandra Udgaonkar . Nuclear-Weapon-Free...

Sakharov, Andrei

Sakharov, Andrei   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,366 words

...public. He lobbied for the Soviet acceptance of the Partial Test Ban Treaty proposed by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in June 1963 ; he lobbied against the possible rehabilitation of Stalin; and he began to protect persecuted scientists. Although Sakharov promoted international collaboration in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, he was an ardent advocate of measures to prevent nuclear war. Like his Western counterparts who had established the Federation of Atomic Scientists and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists , recognizing that nuclear weapons...

The American Antinuclear Movement

The American Antinuclear Movement   Reference library

Paul Rubinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Foreign Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,483 words

...the United States. In addition the Department of Energy maintains a website on Manhattan Project Historical Resources . Scientists made up a small but influential part of the movement; their papers are usually held by their institutions’ archives. MIT and Harvard, for example, contain the papers of several active scientists and advisers, while the Regenstein Library at the University of Chicago has the papers of Eugene Rabinowitch , including his work with the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists . Papers relating to the Atomic Scientists’ Movement and the...

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