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Buddhism

Subject: Religion

Western term which became established in popular usage in the 1830s to refer to the teachings of the Buddha. There is no direct equivalent for this term in Sanskrit or Pāli. Instead, ...

Buddhism

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A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
56 words

... . Western term which became established in popular usage in the 1830s to refer to the teachings of the Buddha . There is no direct equivalent for this term in Sanskrit or Pāli . Instead, indigenous sources use terms like Dharma (‘the Law’), Buddha-dharma (‘Buddhist doctrine’), Buddha-śāsana (‘teachings of the Buddha’) and Buddhavacana (‘the word of the...

Wŏn Buddhism

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A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
97 words

...Buddhism . A modern branch of Korean Buddhism founded in 1924 by Pak Chungbin ( 1891–1943 ) as a reform movement outside of clerical supervision. Pak studied the tenets of Buddhism, Protestantism, and Catholicism and concluded that all religions pointed to the same reality, represented by the dharma-kāya , or formless Truth Body of the Buddha . The formlessness and ineffability of the Buddha are represented by a circle (Kor., wŏn), giving the sect its name and primary symbol. While its doctrines draw primarily from Buddhism, its forms of worship (...

Critical Buddhism

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A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
91 words

...Buddhism (Jap., Hihan Bukkyō). Recent movement among Japanese academics which highlights the doctrinal incompatibility between east Asian and early Indian Buddhism . The leading scholars in this field, namely Noriaki Hakamaya and Shirō Matsumoto of Komazawa University, have aroused controversy by pointing to the lack of foundation in the early sources for later teachings notably those of zen Buddhism, and doctrinal concepts such as that of the ‘embryonic Buddha ’ ( tathāgata-garbha ). They regard such notions as fundamentally incompatible with...

Protestant Buddhism

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A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
289 words

...itself from Buddhism. The traditional bond between Buddhism and the government of the Sinhala people had effectively dissolved while official policy favoured the activities of Protestant missionaries and the conversion to Christianity had become almost essential for those who wished to join the ruling élite. Leader of the movement that started as a result of these conditions was Anagārika Dharmapāla. The movement can be seen both as a protest against the attacks on Buddhism by foreign missionaries and the adoption in the local Buddhism of features...

Engaged Buddhism

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A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
277 words

...Buddhism . A contemporary movement formerly but now less commonly referred to as ‘Socially Engaged Buddhism’, concerned with developing Buddhist solutions to social, political, and ecological problems. The engaged movement cuts across the lay–monastic divide and includes Buddhists from traditional Buddhist countries as well as Western converts. It originated in the latter half of the 20th century and has increasingly become part of mainstream Buddhist thought and practice. The term ‘Engaged Buddhism’ was coined in 1963 by the Vietnamese ( see Vietnam )...

tantric Buddhism

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A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
777 words

...Buddhism . A special path which arose within Mahāyāna Buddhism based on treatises known as tantras and, while generally embracing the same aims, claimed to provide a rapid means to accomplish the goal of enlightenment ( bodhi ) by means of its distinctive techniques. Certain key features can be identified which serve to distinguish it from other forms of Indian Buddhism. It offers an alternative path to enlightenment; its teachings are aimed at lay practitioners in particular, rather than monks and nuns ; it recognizes mundane ( laukika ) aims and...

esoteric Buddhism

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A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
235 words

...Buddhism . A general term for certain Buddhist schools and practices originally developing in parallel with Hindu ( see Hinduism ) tantra with mutual influence at a later stage. It is distinguished from exoteric Buddhism by its secrecy; rather than being given openly these teachings are available only to students who have received a proper initiation ( abhiṣeka ) from a guru who stands in a valid lineage of masters and disciples. Practice will then make use of a number of techniques in which the student visualizes a guardian Buddha , ...

Buddhism

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
153 words

... Religion and philosophy founded ( c .528 bc ) in India by Gautama Siddhartha , the Buddha . Buddhism is based on Four Noble Truths: existence is suffering; the cause of suffering is desire; the end of suffering comes with the achievement of Nirvana , and Nirvana is attained through the Eightfold Path: right views, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration. There are no gods in Buddhism. Karma , one of Buddhism's most important concepts, says good actions are rewarded and evil...

Buddhism

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
665 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Buddhism in India are indebted to the impetus of the Theosophical Society, the spread of neo-Buddhism, particularly among the outcastes by Ambedkar and, in recent times, the presence of Tibetan Buddhist refugees. In Thailand, Buddhism continues to enjoy royal patronage, and the work of the sangha is seen as an important factor in social development in the region. Buddhism has survived even in communist China, while in Japan the Pure Land sects of Mahayana Buddhism remain popular. Like Zen, they are also represented in the USA and Europe. Buddhism. ...

Buddhism

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
294 words

...recognized. Theravada (or Hinayana, lesser vehicle) Buddhism is found mainly in Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka. Mahayana Buddhism is found in Nepal and the countries surrounding and including China. Theravada Buddhism is conservative and simple in its forms; Mahayana or greater vehicle Buddhism includes more elaborate rituals, scriptures, and a gallery of saints (bodhisattvas). The Buddha's own awakening came with realization that neither the way of meditation, nor that of asceticism, provides a way to awareness of a ‘Self’ conceived of as a permanent,...

Buddhism

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
281 words

...Today, two main types of Buddhism survive. Theravada Buddhism is found in Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka. It is the more conservative form: it has few and simple rituals and focuses on the worship of the Buddha itself. Mahayana Buddhism is a slightly later development found in Nepal, Tibet, China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. It has a more elaborate ritual, a baroque pantheon of saints (bodhisattvas), more numerous scriptures, and (sometimes) a married clergy. Mahayana Buddhists believe that their form of Buddhism offers an easier route...

Buddhism

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A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
373 words

... A Western term coined in the 19th century to refer to the teachings, or dharma , of the Buddha , and to the religion practised by his followers in South and Southeast Asia. Buddhism in a variety of forms was a major and, in some places, dominant tradition in India from the 4th century bce until around the 12th century ce , after which it ceased to have any significant following there. It was only in the 19th century that Western Indologists realized that the Buddha had been an historical figure, and that the forms of Buddhism so prevalent...

Buddhism

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A Dictionary of Asian Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...people to the deeds of the Buddha himself. More esoteric forms of Buddhism include the Tantric tradition ( see Tantric entries) and Zen Buddhism ( see Zen Buddhism ). Tantric Buddhism is influenced by Brahamanism ( see Brahmanism ) and is concerned with yogic ( see Yoga ) paths to salvation stressed in rituals and in texts called tantras. Zen, primarily practiced in Japan, developed from Chinese Ch'an Buddhism and emphasizes meditation rather than the worship of idols. The myths of Buddhism are associated with the life of Gautama Buddha and are found...

Buddhism

Buddhism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
5,937 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the late nineteenth century, East Asian Buddhists have frequently contemplated the question of how they could introduce Buddhism to those living outside the Buddhist cultural sphere. The interest in elucidating Buddhism to non-Buddhist societies is part of the background against which Buddhism has enjoyed rising influence in the West. Buddhism in East Asia shares important parallels with Buddhism in South and Southeast Asia. Buddhism in South and Southeast Asia also suffered the oppression of the modernist state. Notorious cases include the Vietnamese...

Buddhism

Buddhism   Reference library

Joshua Kalapati

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,367 words

...These two schools of Buddhism are quite significant historically and geographically, having paved the way for Three Great Traditions of Buddhism: (a) Southern Buddhism, which is also Theravada Buddhism, prevalent in countries like Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Burma, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand (Siam); (b) Eastern Buddhism, which is practised in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam; and (c) Northern Buddhism, which is currently followed in Tibet, Mongolia, the Himalayas, and in some parts in China and the erstwhile Soviet Union. The fact that Buddhism has not only survived,...

Buddhism

Buddhism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,172 words

...as Buddhism and race relations, Buddhism and peace, Buddhism and nuclear development, Buddhism and the destruction of the environment and so on, critics argue that the specifically religious orientation of Buddhism is at risk. Yet a new international Buddhist leadership is emerging—both lay and monastic—which is fashioning a relevant Buddhist spirituality rooted in personal disciplines like meditation coupled with a Buddhist social ethic focused on particular economic, social, and political issues. Generally speaking, this international “Engaged Buddhism” has...

Buddhism

Buddhism   Reference library

Donald K. Swearer

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,182 words

...as Buddhism and race relations, Buddhism and peace, Buddhism and nuclear development, Buddhism and the destruction of the environment, and so on, critics argue that the specifically religious orientation of Buddhism is at risk. Yet a new international Buddhist leadership is emerging—both lay and monastic—that is fashioning a relevant Buddhist spirituality rooted in personal disciplines such as meditation coupled with a Buddhist social ethic focused on particular economic, social, and political issues. Generally speaking, this international “Engaged Buddhism”...

Buddhism

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
206 words

...56 per cent of Buddhists and recognizes Buddha as a divine incarnation. It is most common in Nepal, China, Japan, and Korea. Zen Buddhism developed in Japan and, with its strong emphasis on mysticism, was particularity influential in the USA during the 1960s and again during the 1980s through the New Age movement. Lamaism is also a form of Buddhism, albeit with a strong sense of religious hierarchy absent in other forms of Buddhism. Lamaism is still the predominant religion in Tibet , and its leader, the Dalai Lama , is also recognized as the exiled ruler of...

Buddhism

Buddhism   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
692 words

...the Mādhyamaka school. The reasons for the decline and virtual disappearance of Buddhism in India remain a matter of academic dispute. Long before the decline, Buddhism had begun to expand, in three different geographical directions, which produced very different versions of Buddhism (for which see following articles and TIBETAN RELIGION): north into Tibet; east into China, Korea, and Japan; and south-east into Śri Lankā, Burma, and Thailand. For the development of Buddhism through schools/sects, see BUDDHIST SCHOOLS...

Buddhism

Buddhism   Reference library

Joel J. Kupperman

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
3,383 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Selfless Persons: Imagery and Thought in Theravāda Buddhism . Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982. A careful analysis of the Buddhist denial of self. Conze, Edward . Buddhism: Its Essence and Development . Oxford: Cassirer, 1951. Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck , and Ellison Banks Findly , eds. Women, Religion, and Social Change . Albany: State University of New York Press, 1985. Hongo, Masatsugu . “State Buddhism and Court Buddhism: The Role of Court Women in the Development of Buddhism from the Seventh to the Ninth Centuries.” Translated...

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