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British Sign Language

A communication system for deaf people in the UK in which meaning is conveyed by hand signals and the positions of the hands relative to the upper part of the body. See also Makaton, sign ...

British Sign Language

British Sign Language n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Nursing (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
26 words

...British Sign Language ( BSL ) n. the form of sign language most commonly used in Great Britain. http://www.signstation.org This interactive website explains British Sign ...

British Sign Language

British Sign Language n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Sign Language n. A communication system for deaf people in the UK in which meaning is conveyed by hand signals and the positions of the hands relative to the upper part of the body. See also Makaton , sign language . Compare American Sign Language . BSL ...

British Sign Language

British Sign Language   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Sign Language A visual method of communication, used by 50,000 to 70,000 people who have hearing impairments, that employs gestures, facial expressions, and body language, and has its own structure and syntax. After a long campaign, the UK government recognized it as a minority language in 2003 , according it the same status as Welsh and Gaelic. See also makaton...

British Sign Language

British Sign Language   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...British Sign Language ( BSL ) . The predominant sign language used in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. BSL is used by members of the British Deaf community, by sign language interpreters, and by other sign language users as an L2. ‘Deaf’, with uppercase ‘D’, is used here to indicate those who identify with the cultural community (i.e. those who use BSL as their primary language). This is in contrast to ‘deaf,’ which is understood from a more clinical perspective, referencing those with some degree of hearing loss who feel no affiliation...

British Sign Language

British Sign Language noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
38 words
British Sign Language

British Sign Language  

A communication system for deaf people in the UK in which meaning is conveyed by hand signals and the positions of the hands relative to the upper part of the body. See also Makaton, sign language. ...
1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...Syria, fed up with having to learn cuneiform and hieroglyphs, borrowed from the hieroglyphs the familiar idea of a small number of signs standing for single consonants and then invented some new signs for the basic consonantal sounds of his own Semitic language. Perhaps the child first doodled the signs in the dust of some ancient street: a simple outline of a house, Semitic ‘beth’ (the ‘bet’ in ‘alphabet’), became the sign for ‘b’. In the 20 th century, Rudyard Kipling’s child protagonist in ‘How the Alphabet Was Made’, Taffimai, designs what she calls...

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...[ see *class, 15 ]. The locus classicus for the analogy drawn between the state of the language and the state of the constitution was the third book of *Locke 's Essay concerning Human Understanding ( 1690 ). The theory of language set out in this work, no less than Locke's constitutional theory, had the notion of ‘consent’ at its basis. Locke argued that words were not the signs of things but of ideas. These signs were not naturally tied to their meanings. Language, according to Locke, is a social compact—the product of an agreement that words should...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...importance with the ascendancy of the centralizing Shoan dynasty and the influence of Protestant missions in the early 19 th century. In 1824 , the *British and Foreign Bible Society printed a bilingual Ge’ez-Amharic edition of the Gospels; The * Pilgrim’s Progress appeared in Amharic in 1887 , and Afä-Wärq Gäbrä-Iyäsus’s Lebb Wälläd Tarik (A Story from the Heart, one of Africa’s first African-language novels) was published in Amharic in 1908 . Shortly after a printing press was installed in Addis Ababa in 1911 , catalogues of Ge’ez and Amharic MSS...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...reviews, and political pamphlets to the emergent disciplinary languages of modern knowledge—were becoming powerful stimulants of social visions and cultural classifications as well as apologies for poetry in the age of *Romanticism and revolution. By the early nineteenth century, British writers began describing a historic transformation in the language and media of their public culture, a change they often dated to the *French Revolution controversy that had made the British ‘an inquisitive, prying, doubting, and reading people’. What might be...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and a short *Dictionary . Although Bulgarian, Serbian, and Greek were the languages of instruction, fifteen *primers in a local Macedonian dialect were published between 1857 and 1875 . The idea of establishing a Macedonian linguistic and national identity was first mooted in 1870 , but was delayed during the interwar period, when local dialects were largely banned. The language was standardized and officially recognized in 1944 . At present, materials in three main languages—Macedonian, Albanian, and Turkish—are published to serve the needs of the...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...multivalent discourses which were viewed and contested as particularly glittering prizes. As the Marxist philosopher V. N. Volosinov wrote in 1929 , ‘different classes will use one and the same language. As a result, differently oriented accents intersect in every ideological sign. Sign becomes an arena of the class struggle.’ A substantial proportion of the British population struggled to form new, or re-form old, collective identities at a time when the country was experiencing large changes in agrarian, industrial, and commercial structures and processes....

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the 1790s translated the *French Revolution into a dual challenge to the authority of the British state—from domestic reformers on the one hand, and from the strains of fighting arguably the most extensive and demanding *war [2] in British history (the loss of life among servicemen was proportionately higher than in the First World War). This story details how the language of political conflict in Britain is transformed as French events bring to British political discourse both the universalism of 1776 and 1789 and, increasingly, a set of broader...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...west and south India, the initial impulse in Bengal was almost entirely political. In 1778 Nathaniel Brassey Halhed, a civil servant of the East India Company, produced the first printed book in the Bengali language and script, A Grammar of the Bengal Language . The first British use of Bengali founts: N. B. Halhed, A Grammar of the Bengal Language (1778). The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford (EE 48 Jur.) Initially, William Bolts was asked to design the Bengali type, but his design was not to Halhed’s liking. The task was then entrusted to ...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Uvedale *Price gave objects like Constable's gnarled tree, clump of plants, twisting brook, and battered stump an independent aesthetic value as signs of an unspoilt, weathered, and ‘natural’ British landscape endearingly resistant to the claims of modernity. Gilpin 's Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty; On Picturesque Travel; and of Sketching Landscape ( 1792 ), suggested that the qualities of the British landscape were best appreciated if the traveller was able to map imaginatively the encountered scene onto those environments depicted in certain...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...offices, translation between the two languages was not common at this time, although Pamphile Le May translated two works into French for Quebec readers: Longfellow’s Evangeline in 1865 and William Kirby ’s The Golden Dog in 1884 . At the end of the century, a certain stability prevailed in Toronto. Britain had joined the *Berne Convention for international copyright in 1886 ; new copyright laws were in force in Canada and the US, and a reciprocal Anglo-American agreement for the protection of copyrights was signed in 1891 . Books took their place...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Scottish Dialect ( 1786 ). The following year he signed up as a contributor to the first of the two large compilations of traditional Scottish song on which he spent much of his literary energy until his death in 1796 . William *Blake , emerging as a poet with the childlike Songs of Innocence , was steeped in folklore, *hymns , * Spenser , Shakespeare, Ossian , Darwin 's Botanic Garden , the Old Testament, and Norse mythology. A cultural omnivore, he achieved at last a poetic history of Britain with his last and longest prophetic book, Jerusalem ...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Mansfield ’s first stories. When the *Berne Convention on international copyright was signed in 1886 , Australia was part of the British empire, and the *Net Book Agreement of 1900 perpetuated British control of the Australian market. Although Australian writers were free to seek out US publishers, British editions of their works took precedence in their home country—and Australian literary history has been framed largely within the history of British publishing. Although US editions were demonstrably superior in their physical presentation, the...

Mythology

Mythology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,714 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...circles in Britain. They complemented the infidelism of Thomas *Paine 's Age of Reason ( 1794–5 ), and exerted a considerable influence on works like Drummond 's Oedipus Judaicus ( 1811 ) and Shelley 's Queen Mab ( 1813 ) and Revolt of Islam ( 1817 ). Not unlike Darwin, Volney argued in Les Ruines that the ‘Gods, who act such singular parts in every system, are no other than the physical powers of nature, the elements, the winds, the meteors, the stars, all of which have been personified by the necessary mechanism of language, and the manner...

21 The History of the Book in Ireland

21 The History of the Book in Ireland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,994 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...considerable, with Irish producers generally suffering more than British consumers. As British publishers found the books that they wished to export to Ireland becoming subject to duties, the British authorities retaliated by imposing prohibitive taxes on Irish books, including those crossing the border to Northern Ireland. This levy added to the difficulties which censorship had already put in place, and the only significant Irish publishing firms to survive were Gill and Talbot, who worked with caution and diplomacy, serving the steady indigenous religious...

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