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Brent Scowcroft

(1925) U.S. Air Force officer and national security adviser, born in Utah. Scowcroft was educated at West Point and Columbia University, where in 1967 he received a Ph.D. in international ...

Scowcroft, Brent

Scowcroft, Brent (1925)   Reference library

Steven Hurst

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., Brent ( 1925 – ), ninth and seventeenth U.S. national security adviser, from 1975 to 1977 and from 1989 to 1993 . Born in Ogden, Utah, on 19 March 1925 , Brent Scowcroft attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and on graduation was commissioned into the Air Force. In a military career that lasted twenty-seven years, he served in a wide variety of posts and rose steadily through the ranks. In 1972 he was appointed to the post of military assistant to President Richard M. Nixon , and the following year he became deputy national...

Scowcroft, Brent

Scowcroft, Brent (1925)   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

..., Brent ( 1925 ) U.S. Air Force officer and national security adviser , born in Utah . Scowcroft was educated at West Point and Columbia University, where in 1967 he received a Ph.D. in international relations. Scowcroft graduated from pilot training in 1948 . From 1953 to 1957 he taught Russian history at the U.S. Military Academy ; from 1959 to 1961 he was an assistant air attaché at the U.S. embassy in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In 1962 he returned to the United States, where he taught at several military schools. From 1964 to 1966 he...

Brent Scowcroft

Brent Scowcroft  

(1925) U.S. Air Force officer and national security adviser, born in Utah. Scowcroft was educated at West Point and Columbia University, where in 1967 he received a Ph.D. in international ...
Rice, Condoleezza

Rice, Condoleezza (b. 14 November 1954)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
976 words

...Allegiance ( 1984 ), and The Gorbachev Era ( 1986 ). With Philip Zeliko , she later wrote an award-winning third book: Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft ( 1995 ). In 1984 , Rice met Brent Scowcroft , the head of President Ronald Reagan's Commission of Strategic Forces, at a faculty seminar and dinner. Scowcroft was impressed with Rice's sharp ability as a Soviet specialist, and when he became the U.S. national security adviser in 1989 , he appointed Rice to the National Security Council. In this position, she participated...

Kissinger, Henry

Kissinger, Henry (1923–)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of all North Vietnam. President Richard M. Nixon named him national security adviser in 1969 ; in September 1973 , Kissinger was also confirmed as secretary of state, a position he held concurrently until November 1975 , when President Gerald R. Ford appointed Brent Scowcroft national security adviser; Kissinger remained secretary of state until the end of Ford's administration. During these eight years, Kissinger helped craft the policy of detente with the Soviet Union and to end U.S. involvement in Vietnam. Under his direction, the United...

National Security Council

National Security Council   Reference library

Loch K. Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
596 words

...in the flow of information to, and orders from, the White House. Above all else, the office of the NSC adviser has evolved into the role of “honest broker” to mediate disputes among the cabinet departments, especially between the departments of state and defense. Brent Scowcroft was viewed by many as the quintessential honest broker when he served twice as national security adviser, first under President Gerald R. Ford and later under President George H. W. Bush . Presidents have understood that the complex issues of foreign and security policy in...

Rice, Condoleezza

Rice, Condoleezza (1954)   Reference library

Steven Hurst

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Birmingham, Alabama, Condoleezza Rice received her Ph.D. from the University of Denver and shortly thereafter was appointed as an assistant professor of political science at Stanford University. While at Stanford she met, and impressed, the former national security adviser Brent Scowcroft , who subsequently invited her to become the senior national security staff member for Soviet and East European affairs when in 1989 he returned to his old post under President George H. W. Bush . In that position, Rice found herself playing a significant role in the end...

Presidential Decision Making and Foreign Policy

Presidential Decision Making and Foreign Policy   Reference library

John P. Burke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The price: Kissinger as NSC adviser vetted the policy advice of Kissinger as secretary of state. In late 1975 , President Gerald R. Ford demanded that Kissinger give up one of the jobs; Kissinger continued on as secretary of state, and his replacement as NSC adviser was Brent Scowcroft . Jimmy Carter.  The Carter presidency was at times an ironic replay of the Nixon–Kissinger period, although without quite the intensity. Carter took office hoping to restore the importance of the cabinet as a conduit of policy advice. Yet his selection of Zbigniew...

Rice, Condoleezza

Rice, Condoleezza (14 November 1954)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,714 words
Illustration(s):
1

...events that influenced both fields of study. When Rice returned to Stanford in 1987 , she caught the attention of Brent Scowcroft , who had been national security adviser under former President Gerald Ford . She so impressed Scowcroft with her understanding of Soviet ideology, her insights on nuclear planning, and her self-possessed style of presentation that two years later, when he became the elder Bush’s national security adviser, Scowcroft tapped Rice to be director of Soviet affairs at the National Security Council. Rice clearly dazzled President Bush...

Bush, George H. W.

Bush, George H. W.   Reference library

Herbert S. Parmet

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
823 words

...presidential succession since John Adams and John Quincy Adams . [ See also Bush, George W. ; Clinton, William J. ; Ford, Gerald R. ; Iran-Contra Affair ; Nixon, Richard M. ; Perot, Ross ; Reagan, Ronald ; and Watergate . ] Bibliography Bush, George W., and Brent Scowcroft. A World Transformed . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998. Mervin, David. George Bush and the Guardianship Presidency . Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996. Parmet, Herbert S. George Bush: The Life of a Lone Star Yankee . New York: Scribner & Sons, 1997. Herbert S....

Bush, George

Bush, George   Reference library

Herbert S. Parmet

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
798 words

...also Cold War ; Foreign Relations: U.S. Relations with Latin America ; Persian Gulf War ; Post–Cold War Era . David Mervin , George Bush and the Guardianship Presidency , 1994. Herbert S. Parmet , George Bush: The Life of a Lone Star Yankee , 1997. George W. Bush and Brent Scowcroft , A World Transformed , 1998. Herbert S....

Bush, George Herbert Walker

Bush, George Herbert Walker   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,156 words

...Iraq's capacity for future aggression against neighboring states As a consequence of the war, Saddam's army was estimated to have less than 20 percent of the capacity that it possessed in 1990. President Bush, Secretary of State James Baker, National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft, and General Colin Powell, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, agreed that venturing into Baghdad and removing Saddam from power would not only shatter the U.S.-led coalition, but would exact a huge cost in American lives, with no assurances that the result would produce a...

Bush, George Herbert Walker

Bush, George Herbert Walker (b. 1924)   Reference library

Phillip G. Henderson

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,159 words

...capacity for future aggression against neighboring states. As a consequence of the war, Saddam Hussein's army was estimated to stand at less than 20 percent of the capacity it had possessed in 1990 . President Bush, Secretary of State James Baker, National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft, and General Colin Powell, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, agreed that venturing into Baghdad and removing Hussein from power would not only shatter the US-led coalition, but would exact a huge cost in American lives, with no assurances that the result would produce a...

Bush, George Herbert Walker

Bush, George Herbert Walker (1924)   Reference library

Phillip G. Henderson

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,162 words

...capacity for future aggression against neighboring states. As a consequence of the war, Saddam Hussein's army was estimated to stand at less than 20 percent of the capacity it had possessed in 1990 . President Bush, Secretary of State James Baker, National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft, and General Colin Powell, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, agreed that venturing into Baghdad and removing Hussein from power would not only shatter the US-led coalition, but also would exact a huge cost in American lives, with no assurances that the result would...

Bush, George Herbert Walker

Bush, George Herbert Walker   Reference library

Phillip G. Henderson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,160 words

...for future aggression against neighboring states. As a consequence of the war, Saddam Hussein’s army was estimated to stand at less than 20 percent of the capacity it had possessed in 1990 . President Bush, Secretary of State James Baker , National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft, and General Colin Powell , Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, agreed that venturing into Baghdad and removing Hussein from power would not only shatter the US-led coalition, but would exact a huge cost in American lives, with no assurances that the result would produce...

National Security

National Security   Reference library

Donald M. Snow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Johnson Henry Kissinger, 1969–1975, under Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford Brent Scowcroft, 1975–1977, under Gerald Ford Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977–1981, under Jimmy Carter Richard V. Allen, 1981–1982, under Ronald Reagan William P. Clark, 1982–1983, under Ronald Reagan Robert C. McFarlane, 1983–1985, under Ronald Reagan John M. Poindexter, 1985–1986, under Ronald Reagan Frank C. Carlucci, 1986–1987, under Ronald Reagan Colin L. Powell, 1987–1989, under Ronald Reagan Brent Scowcroft, 1989–1993, under George H. W. Bush W. Anthony Lake, 1993–1997, under Bill...

Kissinger, Henry

Kissinger, Henry (1923)   Reference library

Jussi M. Hanhimäki

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Unlike anyone before or after him, Kissinger continued to hold his job as national security adviser, a dual responsibility that effectively made him the foreign-policy czar between 1973 and 1975 (when he finally gave up the National Security Council post to his deputy, Brent Scowcroft). Kissinger's preponderant influence on American foreign-policy making in the second Nixon administration was on display during the October War of 1973 when he ordered U.S. nuclear forces on a worldwide alert in order to deter a potential Soviet intervention in the...

National Security Apparatus, American

National Security Apparatus, American   Reference library

Loch K. Johnson

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,726 words

...into the National Security Council staff and the national security adviser” ( 1995 , p. 352). Above all else, the adviser's office has evolved at its best into the important role of “honest broker,” providing a place where disputes among Cabinet departments can be mediated. Brent Scowcroft, considered by many the quintessential honest broker when he served as adviser for both Presidents Gerald R. Ford and George H. W. Bush, has said, “if you are not the honest broker, you don’t have the confidence of the other members of the NSC. If you don’t have their...

National Security Apparatus, American

National Security Apparatus, American   Reference library

Loch K. Johnson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,733 words

...Security Council staff and the national security adviser” (Powell and Perisco 1995 , p. 352). Above all else, the adviser’s office has evolved at its best into the important role of “honest broker,” providing a place where disputes among Cabinet departments can be mediated. Brent Scowcroft, considered by many the quintessential honest broker when he served as adviser for both Presidents Gerald R. Ford and George H. W. Bush , has said, “if you are not the honest broker, you don’t have the confidence of the other members of the NSC. If you don’t have their...

Iraq Wars

Iraq Wars (1990–2010)   Reference library

Kenneth M. Pollack

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...See also Bush, George H. W. ; Bush, George W. ; Cheney, Richard B. ; Counterinsurgency ; Hussein, Saddam ; Obama, Barack ; Rumsfeld, Donald ; Scowcroft, Brent ; September 11th Terrorist Attacks ; Strategy ; Terror, War On ; United Nations, U.S. Relationship with the ; and United States Foreign Relations , subentries on Iran and Middle East .] Bibliography Bush, George , and Brent Scowcroft . A World Transformed . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998. From the very pinnacle of American decision making, a view of American strategic thinking...

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