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Bradford Hill criteria

[A. B. Hill (1897–1991), British medical statistician] A set of nine criteria used to determine the strength of an association between a disease and its supposed causative agent. They form ...

Bradford Hill criteria

Bradford Hill criteria   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Dentistry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
185 words

...Bradford Hill criteria [ A. B. Hill ( 1897–1991 ), British medical statistician] A set of nine criteria used to determine the strength of an association between a disease and its supposed causative agent. They form the basis of modern medical and dental epidemiological research. The nine Bradford Hill criteria Criterion Explanation Strength of association The stronger the association, the more likely it is that the relation is causal. Temporal relationship Exposure always precedes the outcome. Consistency The association is consistent...

Bradford Hill criteria

Bradford Hill criteria  

[A. B. Hill (1897–1991), British medical statistician] A set of nine criteria used to determine the strength of an association between a disease and its supposed causative agent. They form the basis ...
Hill's criteria

Hill's criteria  

The British medical statistician Austin Bradford Hill (1897–1991) identified eight criteria that can be used to help distinguish statistically significant associations that indicate causation, i.e., ...
Hill's criteria

Hill's criteria   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Hill's criteria ( Hill’s considerations for causation ) A series of properties that causal relations may satisfy, proposed by Austin Bradford Hill ( 1897–1991 ) and further elaborated by Mervyn Susser and others. Sometimes referred to as “Hill’s criteria” (for causal inference, of causality), even though Hill did not use “criteria” (which might suggest each is necessary); instead, Hill described them as “considerations” or “viewpoints,” stating that none was necessary (although the consensus is that temporality is indeed necessary). They are: Strength :...

Hill’s Considerations For Causation

Hill’s Considerations For Causation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Hill’s Considerations For Causation A series of theoretical and empirical properties that causal relations may or may not satisfy, proposed by Austin Bradford Hill ( 1897–1991 ) 533 and further elaborated by Mervyn Susser 207 and others. 1 , 2 , 6 , 25 , 39 , 42 , 69 , 206 , 208 , 270 Sometimes referred to as “Hill’s criteria” (for causal inference, of causality), even though Hill did not use “criteria” (which might suggest each is necessary); instead, Hill described them as “considerations” or “viewpoints,” stating that none was...

statistics

statistics   Reference library

Douglas G. Altman

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
3,574 words

...Here too Bradford Hill was very influential. He developed criteria for considering whether an observed association may reasonably be thought to indicate a causal relationship. With Richard Doll he carried out a series of studies which helped to demonstrate, together with studies elsewhere, that smoking was a serious health hazard, especially in relation to the development of lung cancer. Their prospective study of British doctors was especially important, as most previous studies had been retrospective (and as a consequence less reliable). Hill and Doll...

Metaphor

Metaphor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,832 words

...“genetic code,” which describes a biological process in terms of information theory, for instance, is a catachrēsis . It is a heuristic tool, because it allows for analogical extensions in expressions like genetic “message,” “transcription,” or “translation” ( Halloran and Bradford , 1984 , p. 188). Didactic discourse, on the other hand, employs illustrative metaphors in the interests of perspicuity. [ See also Figures of speech ; Style ; and Tacit dimension, the .] BIBLIOGRAPHY Black, Max . Models and Metaphors . Ithaca, N.Y., 1962. Blumenberg, Hans...

Literature

Literature   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,196 words

...that communication is impossible without artifice, yet there is a difference between the colloquial simile that someone is ‘as bold as brass’ and T. S. Eliot ’s simile for the young man in The Waste Land ( 1922 ): ‘One of the low on whom assurance sits / As a silk hat on a Bradford millionaire.’ The difference lies not only in the originality and unexpected juxtaposition but in the appropriateness of image to context, in the austere tone of the whole poem, in the evocation of a snobbish post- 1918 attitude to men who had become rich through government...

sports buildings

sports buildings   Reference library

Geraint John

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,080 words

...Archibald Leitch. However, the stadiums of today were influenced by the crowd problems of the last part of the 20th century. A series of disasters, at the Heysel Stadium in Belgium ( 1985 ), a fatal fire at Bradford ( 1985 ), and Hillsborough, Sheffield ( 1989 ), accompanied by a climate of crowd violence, caused the authorities to look at the design criteria for safety. All major stadia became all seated. At the same time, spectators were looking for rising standards of comfort and amenity in comparison with their predecessors. Not only does the modern stadium...

Literature

Literature   Reference library

Everett Emerson, Gary Ashwill, Gordon Hutner, Thomas H. Schaub, and Erin A. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...belles lettres. The writers of colonial America generally identified as most important to literature are William Bradford (1590–1657), Anne Bradstreet, Edward Taylor (c. 1644–1729), William Byrd II, Jonathan Edwards, Benjamin Franklin, and J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur, with others placed at a somewhat lower level: Cotton Mather, the African American poet Phillis Wheatley, and Captain John Smith, who is now recognized as a credible writer. Bradford's well-crafted history of the Plymouth colony (written c. 1630–1650) enjoys a preeminent place because of its...

Legislation

Legislation   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
7,673 words
Illustration(s):
1

...been transferred to the kings, who ruled through directives ( diagrammata ) that often took the form of a letter to the cities. The text of such a letter would be ratified by the assembly of the citizenry and inscribed in stone as law (these texts have been collected by Bradford Welles ). In addition to general diagrammata , a king could also issue a specific decree in the form of a prostagma . Numerous examples from Ptolemaic times have been preserved in Egyptian papyri (and collected by Marie-Thérèse Lenger ). Even in their native Greece, the...

Peace Research

Peace Research   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
18,125 words

...and environmental justice. Department for Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK The Department of Peace Studies at the University of Bradford is one of the leading institutions in the field. The department was established in 1973 , and since then its international reputation has managed to attract on average 400 students from around the world. The department has a comprehensive research mandate with the following centers: the Africa Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies; the Bradford Disarmament Research Centre; the Centre for Conflict Resolution; the...

Gandhi

Gandhi   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
10,411 words

...and Power: Propaganda and the Press in the Indian Nationalist Struggle, 1920–1947 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Overy, Bob . Gandhi as a Political Organiser, In Challenge to Nonviolence, Issues in Peace Research , edited by Michael Randle. Bradford : University of Bradford, Department of Peace Studies, 2002. Parekh, Bikhu . Gandhi’s Political Philosophy: A Critical Examination . South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1989. Parekh, Bikhu . Gandhi: A Very Short Introduction . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. Powers,...

Literature

Literature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,159 words

...are questions such as the following: What is the nature of the literary work? How can one identify/define a literary work? What is the mode of apprehension through which the literary work is grasped? What are the criteria for validity in interpretation? What is the nature of the value judgments passed on literary works and what are the criteria for valid value judgements? Moreover, as a branch of philosophy, literary theory would have at its disposal the insights reached and the arguments developed in other areas of philosophy—in metaphysics, epistemology,...

Linguistics and Literature

Linguistics and Literature   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
28,004 words

...certain poetic texts, they must be taken at face value, i.e. literally. The criteria to determine which texts require or allow their metaphors to be taken literally cannot be specified in advance, but depend on the sense that a reader develops of what type of construal yields the most explanatory metaphysical outlook. Thus, when we read the Psalms , and come across The little hills rejoice , we might choose to understand the phrase not as a figurative way of suggesting that the hills are verdant, glistening, in bloom, or vari-colored, but rather as a claim...

Literature

Literature   Reference library

Stein Haugom Olsen, Bruce Robbins, and Bernard Harrison

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,499 words

...of Criticism . New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1958. Brooks, Cleanth . The Well Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry . New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1947. Easthope, Anthony . “Paradigm Lost and Paradigm Regained.” In The State of Theory , edited by Richard Bradford , pp. 90–104. London and New York: Routledge, 1993. Eliot, T. S. “The Function of Criticism.” In Selected Essays , 3d ed., pp. 23–34. London: Faber & Faber, 1951. Empson, William . Seven Types of Ambiguities . 3d ed. London: Chatto & Windus, 1953. Empson, William . The Structure...

Life Span

Life Span   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...(18–20 years of age). In this study of 445 undergraduates of which, 89% were of European American descent, participants were asked to identify spirituality variables, criteria for adulthood, and whether they had achieved the criteria for adulthood status. Findings from that study suggest that religion is an influence on emerging adults particularly in the areas of behavior and some of the criteria recognized as signifying adulthood, for example, perception of family responsibilities and roles, and examination of personal beliefs. Milevsky ( 2004 ) posits that...

Collections

Collections   Reference library

Laurence Libin and Arnold Myers

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
41,235 words

...School of Music Collection (1975); M. Perkins: Catalogue of the Birmingham Conservatoire Historical Instrument Collection (n.d. [2010]) bournemouth. Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum; GB.BO.rc : 60 European keyboards and worldwide ethnological. bradford. Bradford Art Galleries and Museums; see Keighley, Cliffe Castle Museum, below. brentford, middlesex. The Musical Museum (formerly the British Piano Museum); GB.BRE.m : 300 keyboard, mainly automatic. The Musical Museum (1977/1990) brighton. Museum and...

Adding Biodiversity to Agricultural Landscapes Through Ecology and Biotechnology

Adding Biodiversity to Agricultural Landscapes Through Ecology and Biotechnology   Reference library

David Still

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...the product. Worldwide, agencies that oversee the safety of GE crops regulate the process, not the product, bypassing consumers to make market choices and pre-empting the development of new products, especially non-commodity specialty crops ( Bradford, Van Deynze, Gutterson, Parrott, & Strauss, 2005 ; Miller & Bradford, 2010 ). While some may be alarmed that science has developed the ability to bioengineer crop plants, humans, as engineers, have changed the natural world to an extent that every ecosystem on Earth has been altered. The degradation of...

History of Evidence-Based Practice

History of Evidence-Based Practice   Reference library

Scott O. Lilienfeld and Candice Basterfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
13,615 words

...were blindfolded and asked which cigarette brand they preferred ( Meldrum, 2000 ). A second randomized blinded controlled trial was carried out by the MRC to evaluate streptomycin for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. The British statistician and epidemiologist Austin Bradford Hill ( 1897–1991 ) is credited with designing the trial. He replaced alternation with randomization to better disguise the allocation schedule from patients and experimenters. Pulmonary tuberculosis patients were assigned to the streptomycin treatment group and a no-treatment...

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