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Black Migration

Black migration within colonial America was a result of the demand for labor and the dynamics of white migration in the region. As the American economy grew and settlers pushed ...

Black Migration

Black Migration   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,716 words

...“white flight” also had benefits: by the 1960s, blacks were the political majority in some cities. Some black leaders were skeptical of migration. Both Douglass and Booker T. Washington urged blacks not to abandon the South. Other black leaders in the North encouraged blacks to move. The newspaperman Robert Abbott wrote about the job opportunities of the North in the black newspaper the Chicago Defender and gave copies to black railway porters to give to southern travelers. Chicago's black population grew greatly (148 percent between 1910 and...

Black Migration

Black Migration   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,687 words

... Migration Black migration within colonial America was a result of the demand for labor and the dynamics of white migration in the region. As the American economy grew and settlers pushed into new territory, black migration increased and became a regular feature of life. Early Migration Most of the African Americans brought to the colonies in the seventeenth century remained near the coast. As white settlement filtered into the backcountry, land needed to be cleared, houses built, and crops grown; white migrants turned to slave labor. Some masters brought...

The Great Migration and Black Urban Life in the United States, 1914–1970

The Great Migration and Black Urban Life in the United States, 1914–1970   Reference library

Tyina Steptoe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,688 words

...the country, black migrants significantly contributed to the literary and musical development of urban America. Black Politics in Migration Cities The migration of black southerners to the North and West influenced electoral politics in the United States and led to political party realignment. Northern and western states did not disfranchise African Americans, so black migrants in those regions could vote. Black voters on Chicago’s South Side reshaped local politics during World War I. In 1914 Republican Oscar De Priest became the first black alderman...

Black Migration

Black Migration  

Black migration within colonial America was a result of the demand for labor and the dynamics of white migration in the region. As the American economy grew and settlers pushed ...
African‐Caribbean Genealogy

African‐Caribbean Genealogy   Quick reference

Guy Grannum

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,002 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...How to Find Out More ( 1998 ), Geraldine Lane , Tracing Ancestors in Barbados: A Practical Guide ( 2006 ), Tony Burroughs , Black Roots: A Beginner's Guide to Tracing the African‐American Family Tree ( 2001 ), and Peter Fryer , Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain ( 1984 ). http://www.ancestorsonboard.com Outward bound passenger lists 1890–1960. http://www.movinghere.org.uk Inward migration passenger lists 1948–60, etc. http://www.familysearch.org International Genealogical Index. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk Scottish...

Population Levels and Trends

Population Levels and Trends   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Epidemics in Britain (2 vols, 1894 ). Another aspect of demography that interested researchers at this time was the study of geographical mobility , which was advanced by the publication of E. G. Ravenstein , ‘The Laws of Migration’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society , 48 ( 1885 ), which categorized various stages of migration and emphasized that most people travelled relatively short distances. Ravenstein's model has proved of lasting worth. Major advances in the study of historical demography were made in the second half of the 20th century. An...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...difficult researches into family history, since the rapid growth of towns came about largely by mass migration from the countryside at the period when parish registers were becoming less comprehensive and when civil registration of births , marriages, and deaths was only just beginning. Yet although townspeople were a minority of Britons until the last century, towns have long played a part in national life out of proportion to their size. Local migration was common as far back as the Middle Ages, and much of it consisted of movement from country to town....

On Martyrdom (Shahadat)

On Martyrdom (Shahadat)   Reference library

‘Alī Sharī‘atī

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,396 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is corrupt and cruel. He has no other means at his disposal for his jihad but his own death. He leaves his home only to enter the place of execution. We see how well he carried this out with his accurate plans, reasoning, a glorious and well-planned departure, movement and migration. Stage by stage, he clears the way, explaining the aim which he is moving toward with his unique selection of companions—men who had come to die with him—as well as members of his family. These are all of the things that he possesses in this world and he leads them to be...

Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel

Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel   Reference library

Lawrence E. Stager

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,872 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...the Mycenaean and Hittite worlds an internal process of fragmentation and ruralization began, leading to what archaeologists often call a “dark age.” This in turn triggered mass migrations by sea to the already crowded coastlands of the Levant and Cyprus, sending repercussions into the interior of Canaan as well. The Philistines were one group taking part in these migrations. Not long before, another group had appeared in the land of Canaan, although by a process that is much more disputed. This group called itself Israel, and according to the biblical...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1800 and an astonishing 14.7 million by 1840 . Due partly to better communications and partly to rural dispossession and migration, urban population shot up particularly dramatically [ see *land, 16 ]. London, for example, expanded from around three-quarters of a million in mid- century to almost a million in 1800 and then to two million by 1830 . Alongside the capital, centres of manufacturing—for example, Birmingham and the Black Country—grew with great rapidity, as did the cotton towns of Lancashire and the woollen centres of the West Riding of...

Landscape History: The Countryside

Landscape History: The Countryside   Quick reference

H. S. A. Fox

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,175 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...common‐field systems, which is further confirmatory evidence for nucleation because such systems were inappropriate, both spatially and in terms of organization, for a pattern of dispersed settlement. Villages appear to have been created at this time through the small‐scale migration of husbandmen from peripheral settlements within a township towards a central or other suitable site, and through the coalescence of farms and hamlets already existing close to that spot, thus giving some villages a many‐centred, rather formless, appearance, which has been...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...antiquity as an ideal of European utopianism. Radical political thought in Britain was widely inspired by the notion that the more equitable conditions of society in the young United States could be emulated in Europe. Utopian conceptions of America also encouraged schemes for migration, such as S. T. *Coleridge and Robert *Southey 's ill-fated plans to set up the model community of *Pantisocracy on the banks of the Susquehanna River in the New World. The importation of the American model into British politics was particularly associated with the doctrines...

In the Beginning: The Earliest History

In the Beginning: The Earliest History   Reference library

Michael D. Coogan

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,305 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

... The Chalcolithic Age The periodization of history—its division into various eras, and the nomenclature given to those eras—is misleading. It implies sudden change, caused by migration, invasion, variations in climate, or other punctual events. But what is more apparent from the archaeological record is continuity, both through time and across a wide geographical area. Change occurs, of course, but it is almost always gradual and the process is observable. ...

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy   Reference library

Carol Meyers

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20,793 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...mechanisms that were part of the emergence of centralized governance may have dealt with such problems in other ways. Another remedy by which agrarian societies have tried to deal with the rise of population above the land's carrying capacity is out-migration. Usually the emigrants are second and third sons who cannot inherit a large enough plot to support a new household. Such sons move to unsettled lands, usually as near as possible to their own family's village but sometimes in a neighboring lineage's territory. This solution is...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

Neil Harris

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,132 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...although the council ultimately failed, it did establish a direct acquaintance with Greek culture and language, up to that time known to Italian intellectuals principally through medieval Latin. The subsequent fall of Byzantium (Constantinople) in 1453 precipitated a migration of Greek scholars, often with MSS in their baggage, who scraped a living in Italy through teaching. With its position athwart the Mediterranean, governing trade between West and East, with the wealth of its great banking families, and the influx of outside revenue ensured by the...

Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt

Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt   Reference library

Carol A. Redmount

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
16,877 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Exodus began in the mid-fifteenth century, with the conquest coming forty years later. This Exodus chronology is generally part of a broader, biblically derived chronological and historical reconstruction that places the descent of Jacob in the mid-nineteenth century and the migration of Abraham in the mid-twenty-first century. In this scenario, historical and archaeological data play a secondary and supportive role and are invoked to bolster the primarily biblically derived chronology. A fifteenth-century Exodus date mandates a late fifteenth- or early...

Joshua

Joshua   Reference library

Gordon McConville and Gordon McConville

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,409 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...who subdued the Philistines. Aijalon and Shaalbim are mentioned in Judg 1:35 as places where Canaanites (Amorites) continued to live, under pressure, admittedly, from ‘the house of Joseph’—but not from Dan. Dan's failure is admitted in the narrative, which also reports its migration north, to the outer edges of the territory. Its ‘conquest’ of Leshem is not celebrated as part of Joshua's conquest. It is told more fully in Judg 18 , where the slaughter of Leshem (Laish) is implicitly criticized ( 18:27 ). The final note in the description of the tribal...

Introduction to the Pentateuch

Introduction to the Pentateuch   Reference library

G. I. Davies

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
32,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of different types: the two main ones being tribal legends and aetiological legends. The former (1) can be either ( a ) historical, if they represent events in the history of tribes, such as the treaty between Abraham or Isaac and Abimelech king of Gerar ( 21:22–34; 26 ) or the migrations of the various patriarchs from one place to another; or ( b ) ethnographic if they represent tribal relations, as in the stories of Jacob and Esau. Aetiological legends (2) are those whose purpose is to explain the origin of some aspect of contemporary experience, and they...

Acts

Acts   Reference library

Loveday Alexander and Loveday Alexander

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
42,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...acquisition of land ( latreuein , ‘worship’ in v. 7 echoes Lk 1:74 , and both pick up Ex 3:12 , which refers to Sinai, not Canaan). ( 7:9–16 ) Conflict in the Family Bypassing other episodes in the patriarchal narratives, Stephen moves on to the story of Joseph and Jacob's migration to Egypt, an episode that prepares the ground for the nation's exile in Egypt. This selection allows him to highlight the history of fraternal conflict within Israel, a conflict sparked by zēlos (which here does mean ‘envy’: v. 9 , cf. Philo, De Josepho , 5). Joseph (like...

Great Migration

Great Migration  

The first decades of the twentieth century were characterized by a massive migration of African Americans within the United States. Designated the “Great Migration,” this movement of blacks from the ...

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