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Bishops' Wars

Subject: History

(1639–40) Two brief conflicts over Charles I's attempt to impose Anglicanism on the Scots, and important as a factor leading to the outbreak of the English Civil War. Since 1625 ...

Bishops’ Wars

Bishops’ Wars   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
35 words

...’ Wars . Two brief campaigns in Scotland in 1639 and 1640 . After Charles I tried to enforce the use of the BCP in Scotland, the Scots rebelled, with the avowed aim of abolishing...

Bishops’ wars

Bishops’ wars (1639–40)   Reference library

Roger Lockyer

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
163 words

...’ wars , 1639–40 . Charles I assumed, with good reason, that religious diversity was a source of weakness in a state. In 1637 , therefore, he ordered the Scottish presbyterian church to use a new prayer book on the English model. This provoked a protest movement which culminated in the drawing up of a national covenant to defend ‘the true religion’. Charles raised an army to enforce his will but his troops were an undisciplined rabble and rather than risk fighting he accepted the pacification of Berwick in June 1639 . This brought to an end the...

Bishops’ Wars

Bishops’ Wars (1639–40)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
171 words

...’ Wars ( 1639–40 ) Two brief conflicts over Charles I’s attempt to impose Anglicanism on the Scots, and important as a factor leading to the outbreak of the English Civil War . Since 1625 the king had been trying to take back former church lands from Scottish noblemen, provoking great bitterness. In 1637 , a modified version of the English Prayer Book was introduced in Scotland. This spurred the Covenanters into abolishing the episcopacy. The first war ( May–June 1639 ) was a bloodless fiasco. Charles had refused to call a Parliament to vote...

Bishops' Wars

Bishops' Wars   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
87 words

...Bishops' Wars . The two brief campaigns in Scotland in 1639 and 1640 . After the attempt of Charles I to enforce the use of the Prayer Book in Scotland, the Scots had broken out into rebellion, and their avowed aim was to abolish episcopacy. The military importance of these campaigns was inconsiderable, but the need for money to conduct them obliged the King to summon the English Parliament, which had not met since 1629 , and so gave his enemies in England a chance to gather their forces....

Bishops' wars

Bishops' wars   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
124 words

...' wars , 1639–40 . Charles I assumed that religious diversity was a source of weakness in a state. In 1637 , therefore, he ordered the Scottish presbyterian church to use a new prayer book on the English model. This provoked a protest, culminating in the drawing up of a national covenant to defend ‘the true religion’. Charles raised an army but his troops were an undisciplined rabble and he accepted the pacification of Berwick in June 1639 . In 1640 Charles again took up arms. The outcome was worse. The Scots promptly invaded England, brushed aside...

Bishops' Wars

Bishops' Wars  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1639–40)Two brief conflicts over Charles I's attempt to impose Anglicanism on the Scots, and important as a factor leading to the outbreak of the English Civil War. Since 1625 the king had been ...
Billy Bishop Goes to War

Billy Bishop Goes to War (1978)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Plays (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Bishop is made a pilot, and returns to France in 1916 . Eventually, despite his constant clumsiness, he becomes a flying ace, shooting down several German aircraft. Hailed as a war hero, he goes to Buckingham Palace to be decorated. In a flashback he re-enacts a daring raid on a German aerodrome. Finally, Bishop gives a rousing recruiting speech to young Canadians to go to war in 1939 . Based on the true story of a Canadian war ace, this play traces the career of an insignificant individual, whose sheer guts transform him into a daring war hero. All...

Billy Bishop Goes to War

Billy Bishop Goes to War  

A: John Gray with Eric Peterson Pf: 1978, Vancouver Pb: 1981 G: Drama in 2 acts; prose with songs S: Canada, England, and France, 1914–18; Canada, 1939 C: 2m, playing 17m, 2fBilly Bishop tells the ...
Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...one that prevailed during the Napoleonic wars. * Napoleon 's attempted economic blockade and the Orders in Council that were Britain's response also raised acute questions about the basis of British prosperity. Had the French Économistes , rather than Smith, been more accurate in ascribing prosperity to the exclusive capacity of agriculture to produce a net social sur-plus? How vulnerable was Britain to threats to its foreign commerce? Would her prosperity survive if she was surrounded by what Bishop Berkeley ( 1685–1753 ) called ‘a wall of brass’?...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...harmonized by mainstream composers like Haydn and Beethoven. Thomas *Moore 's Irish Melodies were similarly domesticated by Henry Bishop for the drawing-room; and even the Welsh *eisteddfod movement became incorporated into the respectable mainstream by the 1820s. It was much the same with opera, whose supernatural or magical settings all too easily descended to routine balladry and superficial colour: Bishop's Aladdin was no match for Weber's fantastical Oberon . There was, also, a growth of popular and ethnographic interest in music outside...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,095 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Stone comments on this extract, which resembles nothing so much as modern Los Angeles. This summary of urban growth should not be taken to mean that all was improving. Some towns did decline in absolute or relative terms; and many endured short‐term crises. The Civil War , or ‘War of Three Kingdoms’, was disruptive for many English towns, and disastrous for most Irish towns except Dublin. Epidemics and fires remained frequent scourges: the great London plagues ( 1563 , 1593 , 1603 , 1625 , 1665 ) and the Fire ( 1666 ) were only the largest and...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The structural foundations of religion in the British Isles are sunk in a terminological swamp. In 1736 William Warburton ( 1698–1779 ), a future Bishop of Gloucester, published The Alliance between Church and State , in which he set out the essential terms of the relationship. As he saw it, the ruler would ‘establish’—that is make official and supported by the civil power—the religion of the majority of his subjects; the two powers would then enter upon a compact defining the precise obligations of each. The Church of England, which assuredly...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1990s ), and p's and q's (still with apostrophes because of the single letters). See dates (d) & numerals (d) . Two contradictory trends—both bad—are at work with apostrophes. First, careless writers want to form plurals with wayward apostrophes—e.g.: “The bishop's [read bishops ] of the United Methodist Church have issued an urgent appeal for funds to assist the victims of flooding in the Midwest.” Monte Marshall , “Special Offering for Flood Relief,” United Methodist Rep . , 3 Sept. 1993 . The same problem occurs in third-person-singular...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...approached the Revd Dr Thomas Newton , Dean of St Paul's, with a plan for decorating the cathedral with large paintings on biblical themes. Benjamin West, Angelica *Kauffman , and James *Barry were among the artists who offered their labour, but the scheme was rejected by the Bishop of London, who ‘would never suffer the doors of the metropolitan church to be opened for the introduction of popery’. The King's Gallery at Kensington Palace was accessible but largely despoiled of significant works in this period. The State Apartments at Windsor Castle were open...

Family History

Family History   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,258 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...about 7 million entries, perhaps 13 per cent of the marriages which took place in that period. An old firm of record agents, Messrs Pallot , had already compiled a marriage index for much of London from 1800 to 1837 , in this instance working from the centrally deposited bishops ' transcripts of parish registers, the registers themselves in parish churches then being difficult and costly of access. Both indexes are now available on a fee‐paying basis on the Internet. Following the Parochial Registers and Records Measure ( 1978 ) the majority of parish...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...oppression. The reform agitations in 1831 took careful notice of the fact that the bishops in the House of Lords had blocked the passage of the parliamentary *Reform Bill , and this antagonism continued in a series of skirmishes over church rates in various localities during the 1830s. Fittingly, it was the Chartist movement, espousing a core political programme first laid down by Rational Dissenters in the 1780s, which most vigorously fought the religious class war in 1839 . The Chartist demand for Six Points of parliamentary reform starting with...

Mythology

Mythology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,714 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...renewal of interest in accounts of indigenous Americans, as well as the *exploration [37] of the Pacific by * Cook and others further extended the global pantheon of myths and deities. This mythographic revolution had a parallel in studies in European *antiquarianism [35] . Bishop *Percy 's translation of Mallet 's Northern Antiquities ( 1770 ) gave great currency to the Norse myths, the second volume presenting a translation of the ancient Icelandic saga Edda , and James Macpherson 's ( 1736–96 ) *Ossian collections kindled interest in the old...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... imagination. Different aspects of Enlightenment aesthetics could therefore be seen as operating on the Romantic imagination. From the outset of the Enlightenment, the sensationalist psychology of Locke had possessed the potential for developing into a radical subjectivism. Bishop George Berkeley ( 1685–1753 ) had suggested in his New Theory of Vision ( 1709 ) that the eye sees ‘only diversity of colours’, a view foreshadowing Goethe 's notion that through ‘light, shade and colour’ the artist could create ‘a much more perfect world than the actual one...

Britain and America: A Common Heritage

Britain and America: A Common Heritage   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,840 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that is available. Perhaps the best‐known American library in this country is the Family History Library in Salt Lake City (the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter‐Day Saints), where there are microfilm copies of literally thousands of English and Welsh parish registers or bishops ' transcripts. Allen County Public Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana, holds the Periodical Source Index , or PERSI , the world's largest subject index to articles in periodicals on genealogy and history. It covers those written since the 1700s and has more than 1.8 million index...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,400 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Croscombe (Somerset), has an unusually complete interior from this period, with an elaborate rood‐screen surmounted by the royal arms , a pulpit donated by the Bishop of Bath and Wells, box pews, and chandeliers. Under the influence of Archbishop Laud, many churches attempted to restore ‘the beauty of holiness’, but this movement came to an end with the defeat of the Royalists in the Civil War . During the 17th century churches became filled with pews. The inevitable disputes which broke out over their positioning were settled at parish meetings. It became...

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