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Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

Subject: Religion

(1893–1956) Indian leader of the Untouchables (the lowest group in the caste system). He led the agitation for their constitutional rights in the 1930s and when Mahatma Gandhi ...

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji (1891–1956)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
85 words

..., Bhimrao Ramji ( 1891–1956 ) Born into the Mahār ‘ untouchable ’ caste , Dr. Ambedkar became a lawyer, and, as a member of   Nehru 's cabinet, played a prominent role in drawing up India's post-independence constitution. He fell out with the Congress Party and M. K. Gāndhī over the question of caste, and the continued social exclusion of the ‘untouchables’. In 1956 Ambedkar publicly renounced Hinduism, and converted to Buddhism , an example followed by thousands of his ‘untouchable’ followers. The Maharashtran Mahārs still consider themselves...

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji (1893–1956)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
103 words

..., Bhimrao Ramji ( 1893–1956 ) Indian leader of the Untouchables (the lowest group in the caste system). He led the agitation for their constitutional rights in the 1930s and when Mahatma Gandhi went on a fast against the provision of separate electorates for the Untouchables, agreed to the Poona Pact ( 1934 ) providing reserved seats for them in the legislatures. As the leader and founder of the Scheduled Castes Federation, he opposed the Indian National Congress , but joined that party after independence. As a leading constitutional lawyer, he played...

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji (1891–1956)   Quick reference

Alistair McMillan

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
271 words

..., Bhimrao Ramji ( 1891–1956 ) Indian politician , who helped frame the Constitution, and has become a symbol of the struggle against oppression and discrimination in modern politics. A member of an Untouchable caste, Ambedkar was raised in poverty and faced caste discrimination throughout his life. Through the sponsorship of the Maharaja of Baroda, he attended Columbia University, and then moved to London, where he studied at the London School of Economics and trained for the Bar. On his return to India, Ambedkar became a spokesman for the...

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji (14 April 1891)   Reference library

Jesudas M. Athyal

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

..., Bhimrao Ramji ( b . Mhow, Madhya Pradesh, India , 14 April 1891 ; d. Delhi, India , 6 December 1956 ) Babasaheb Ambedkar played a distinct role in the shaping of modern India, and in posing serious questions about the commitment of the Indian church to the liberation of the Dalits * and the other oppressed masses. He was born in a Dalit family. As a student, he had experienced caste discrimination, and was determined to overcome it. A brilliant student, he went abroad and earned a Ph.D. from Columbia University, New York. Later, he received a...

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji (14 Apr. 1893)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
271 words

...Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji (b. Mhow , 14 Apr. 1893 ; d. New Delhi , 6 Dec. 1956 ) Indian politician Born into the Mahar caste of Dalits (‘untouchables’), he won a series of scholarships and graduated from Columbia University with a Ph.D., and with a D.Sc. degree from the University of London in 1923 , when he was called to the Bar. Back in India, he founded the Bahishkrit Hikarini Sabha in July 1924 , an organization which campaigned for the rights of the Dalits. To this end, he embarked upon a number of specific campaigns ( satyagraha ), while also...

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji (1891–1956)   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji . ( 1891–1956 ) . Indian reformer and Buddhist convert, who advocated for reform of the caste system and improvements in the social treatment of “untouchables” or the Dalit community during the independence period. The fourteenth child of a Dalit caste family in the Indian state of Maharashtra, Ambedkar was one of the few members of his caste to receive a secondary-school education and went on to study in New York and London, eventually receiving a doctorate from Columbia University. Upon his return to India, he worked both for...

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1893–1956)Indian leader of the Untouchables (the lowest group in the caste system). He led the agitation for their constitutional rights in the 1930s and when Mahatma Gandhi went on a fast against ...
Mahār

Mahār  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A Maharashtrian untouchable caste with a pronounced warrior tradition, expressed through their recruitment into various armies, such as those of Śivaji, and the British Rāj, as well as the current ...
Cokāmeḷā

Cokāmeḷā  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1293–1338)A low-caste (Mahār) Maharashtrian sant and bhakti poet belonging to the Marāṭhā Vārkarī tradition, and associated with Nāmdev. He was a devotee of Viṭṭhala at Paṇḍharpur, but was unable to ...
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order

Friends of the Western Buddhist Order  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Western-orientated Buddhist group founded in 1967 by the British Buddhist Sangharakshita, who became a monk in 1950 after working for nearly 20 years in India much of the time among Ambedkar ...
Dalit

Dalit  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The self-designation of members of a 20th-century social and political movement, comprised of those known by others as ‘untouchables’, ‘outcastes’,‘scheduled castes’, or, in the case of M. K. Gāndhī, ...
untouchables

untouchables  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A member of the lowest-caste Hindu group or a person outside the caste system. Contact with untouchables is traditionally held to defile members of higher castes. The term untouchable and the social ...
Buddhism

Buddhism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Western term which became established in popular usage in the 1830s to refer to the teachings of the Buddha. There is no direct equivalent for this term in Sanskrit or Pāli. Instead, indigenous ...
Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1869–1948)Indian nationalist and spiritual leader. After early civil-rights activities as a lawyer in South Africa, in 1914 Gandhi returned to India, where he became prominent in the opposition to ...
India

India  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growthIndia's vast territory can be divided into three main regions from north to south. ...
Ambedkar Nagar

Ambedkar Nagar (Madhya Pradesh/India)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Ambedkar Nagar , Madhya Pradesh/India ( Mhow ) An administrative district, established in 1995 , and town renamed from Mhow in 2003 . The new name was to be used for official purposes but the change was not universally welcomed. The most popular theory for the name Mhow is that it is an acronym for ‘Military Headquarters of War’, having been founded in 1818 as a military cantonment for the British to fight the Mahrattas. The present name, ‘City of Ambedkar’, honours Dr. Bhimrao Ramji (popularly known as Babasaheb) Ambedkar ( 1891–1956 ), who was born...

Hinduism

Hinduism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,307 words

...to the conditions of the lower classes and attacked untouchability” (p. 38). This carried through into the independence movement, where Mohandas (“Mahatma”) Gandhi and Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar in particular put opposition to untouchability at the heart of the struggle. Opposition to caste discrimination, however, did not necessarily mean opposition to caste distinction . Some, most notably Ambedkar, who was born an untouchable, did argue for the complete elimination of caste. But the more common position was to target caste discrimination, especially legal...

Indian Subcontinent

Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
7,545 words
Illustration(s):
1

...such mutual support have dwindled. Unfortunately, the Indian constitution concentrated on civil and political rights to create a discretionary responsibility on the part of the government to ensure social and economic equality for all. India's leading constitution maker, Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , warned that after the enactment of the constitution, India would enter into a life of inegalitarian social and economic contradictions that if unresolved, would “blow apart the structure of political democracy which (the Constituent)… Assembly has so laboriously built...

Ambedkar, B. R.

Ambedkar, B. R. (1891–1956)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
106 words

..., B. R. ( Bhimrao Ramji ) ( 1891–1956 ) An Indian politician, scholar, economist, and social reformer. After receiving doctorates from Columbia University and the London School of Economics, he was a prominent figure during the independence struggle and became the country’s first law and justice minister. He was the principal writer of the Indian Constitution , and later campaigned against the social discrimination of Dalits and against inequality in Indian society, especially relating to women. He is regarded as one of India’s founding fathers...

śaraṇa

śaraṇa (P.)   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...supplicants are instructed to keep a set of rules; the most basic rule is associated with the dharma (“the actual refuge”), i.e., not willfully hurting any living being ( ahiṃsā ). It is not clear how the triśaraṇa recitation became associated with conversion ( see Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji ), although in modern contexts it is often the formula associated with that religious event. See triśaraṇa ; ratnatraya...

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