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Bersheh

Village across from present-day Mallawi (province el-Minia), on the eastern side of the Nile River. Deir el-Bersheh (often called Bersheh or el-Bersheh), is a large cemetery of ancient ...

Bersheh

Bersheh   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
Length:
1,445 words
Illustration(s):
1

... , village across from present-day Mallawi (province el-Minia), on the eastern side of the Nile River. Deir el-Bersheh (often called Bersheh or el-Bersheh), is a large cemetery of ancient Egypt. At its center—at the mouth of the Wadi Deir en-Nakhla, to the east of the village—were found some shaft tombs. Other cemeteries on the desert edge stretch from the mouth of the wadi to below the modern village. The administrators of the fifteenth Upper Egyptian nome (the Hare nome) whose seat was in Hermopolis (modern Ashmunein) were buried in the rock-cut...

Bersheh

Bersheh  

Village across from present-day Mallawi (province el-Minia), on the eastern side of the Nile River. Deir el-Bersheh (often called Bersheh or el-Bersheh), is a large cemetery of ancient Egypt. At ...
Fantastic Animals

Fantastic Animals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...models. During the Middle Kingdom, fantastic animals appeared again on the walls of tombs of some high officials of Beni Hasan and Bersheh, in Middle Egypt. A little farther south, in Meir, also during the Middle Kingdom, the capital city, el-Kusiyeh, when written in hieroglyphs, had two serpopards back to back, their necks held by a man. Beni Hasan and el-Kusiyeh were only about 65 kilometers (40 miles) from each other. Bersheh and Beni Hasan were the starting points for the desert roads that led to the Red Sea coast, to the Sinai peninsula, and to Nubia....

Models

Models   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Lower Egypt or their titular goddesses, or the two staples of Egyptian diet, bread and beer. Other offering bearers are found in processions, in single or double file, comprising a mixture of both sexes. The finest of this genre is the so-called Bersheh Procession from the Middle Kingdom tomb of Djehutinakht at Bersheh, consisting of three female bearers led by a shaven-headed priest. A similar though smaller procession was among the Meketre models, complementing the two larger offering bearers from that tomb. The largest procession is of (originally) twenty...

Coffin Texts

Coffin Texts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...by the fact that these texts were generally the earliest known to have been used for nonroyal men and women, usually high officials and their wives. The Coffin Texts come from sites throughout Egypt, including Kom el-Hisn, Saqqara, Dashur, el-Lisht, Herakleopolis, Beni Hasan, Bersheh, Qau, Meir, Akhmim, Siut, Abydos, Dendera, Thebes, Gebelein, and Aswan. The manuscripts with Coffin Texts vary a great deal in their selection of texts and the quantity used. Sometimes very abbreviated versions of spells were deemed sufficient to stand in for the whole. In a few...

Hermopolis

Hermopolis   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
Length:
1,851 words
Illustration(s):
1

...is situated on the northern side. Sandy mounds, which were swept up by an ancient arm of the Nile in the middle of the cultivation area, formed the foundation for a settlement, which is attested only from the time of the fourth dynasty by inscriptions from its cemetery near Bersheh, but may well be older. From an early date, the place was called Khemenu (“the City of the Eight”)—that is, the city of the eight primeval gods of the so-called Hermopolitan creation of the world. Another name was Wenu (“the City of Hares”), probably derived from the name of the...

Calcite

Calcite   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...are known; these include sarcophagi, life-size and colossal statues, naoi , embalming beds, whole shrines, and other objects. One mode of transport for such articles was shown in a detailed painting on the wall of the twelfth dynasty tomb of Djehutihotpe (or Thuthotpe ) at Bersheh, where a colossal statue of that nobleman is pulled on a sledge by 172 men. Some notable examples of large objects are the following: (1) the sarcophagus of King Sety I from his tomb in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes, now in Sir John Soane's Museum, London; (2) two huge...

Lepsius, Karl Richard

Lepsius, Karl Richard (1810–1884)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in the Faiyum, at the ruins of the Labyrinth, where they carried out excavations and remained for several months. In the process, they made the first detailed plans of that monument. They traveled through Middle Egypt with stops at a number of sites, including Beni Hasan and Bersheh, as they made their way up the Nile River, hardly pausing at Thebes on the way to Nubia. The custom at the time, dictated by the realities of travel on the Nile, was to move with dispatch to the south, then to examine the monuments in more detail on the return journey down...

Pyramids of Giza

Pyramids of Giza   Reference library

Edward Bleiberg

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,435 words

...the stone to build the pyramids have been located in the vicinity of Giza by Mark Lehner and Zahi Hawass. The Tura limestone used in the pyramid casings was transported both by boat and by sledges and rollers such as those depicted in the Twelfth Dynasty tomb of Djehutihotep at Bersheh (reigns of Sesostris II and III, ca. 1845 BC–1818 BC). The stones were lifted by three basic methods: pulling them up inclined planes, lifting them with ropes and primitive devices, and levering. There is ample archaeological evidence for each of these methods. Chisel marks and...

Middle Egypt

Middle Egypt   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...modern farmland now covers the ancient desert, although a strong northwest wind frequently deposits sand on the rocky desert ground as shifting sand dunes. Since the seventeenth century, travelers have visited such Middle Egypt tourist destinations as el-Minia, Beni Hasan, el-Bersheh, Tell el-Amarna, Hermopolis, and Tuna el-Gebel. The first scientific study of the area was attempted by the scholars of Napoleon Bonaparte's expedition to Egypt in 1798–1799 ; their survey maps, published in the atlas of the Description de l'Égypte , show many hills of ruins...

Cartography

Cartography   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
Length:
1,572 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a grove of trees, often of many species; drawings of birds, fish, and people commonly populate the gardens. Mythological and Cosmological Maps Included under the rubric of mythological maps are various depictions of the netherworld. For example, from the twelfth dynasty tombs at Bersheh, the floors of some wooden coffins have painted maps, showing the land and water routes across the netherworld on which the deceased may travel. Such maps are associated with spells in the ancient Book of the Two Ways . One such coffin is now in the Egyptian Museum (CG 28083) in...

Games

Games   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...art as early as the first dynasty. Wrestling pairs are known among Old Kingdom servant figurines, and naked boys wrestle in the fifth dynasty tomb of Ptahhotep at Saqqara. In the twelfth dynasty tombs at Beni Hasan , there are some two hundred depictions of wrestlers. At Bersheh, wrestlers even appear with a referee. Wrestling became a part of royal ceremonial during the New Kingdom, where the contestants were portrayed as soldiers of Nubian origin. The Theban tomb of Tjanuni (tomb 74) has a scene with a group of Nubian wrestlers carrying a standard,...

Funerary Literature

Funerary Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...were quite logically taken in order, and also the Book of the Ways of Rosetan (modernly known as the Book of Two Ways ), which was recognized as a complete unit regardless of where it occurred on the coffins, though it was generally on the inside bottoms of the coffins from Bersheh. These two lots were numbered and included at the end of the whole collection, though clearly the latter at least should not have been relegated to this position, and a few spells that belonged with this group had earlier been mistakenly edited separately. Again, a reading or...

Ka-chapel

Ka-chapel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...tombs. Scattered throughout Upper Egypt, rock-cut tombs of those periods are a provincial phenomenon and, thus, several local tendencies coexist in the development of architecture and the decoration of their chapels. Such important necropolises as Hawawish (Akhmim), Meir, Bersheh, and Beni Hasan generally followed traditions of the Old Kingdom, although they deviated from a standard style, owing to provincialism and long independent development. In Thebes (at Tarif, Asasif, Gurna), Armant, and Dendera, the new type of saff -tomb appeared, with their...

Sports

Sports   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
Length:
2,755 words
Illustration(s):
1

...even attests to continuity, can look back on a thirty-five-hundred-year tradition of wrestling prowess. The wrestling theme was also modeled on ostraca and in statuettes. Occasionally, a referee—once shown with a trumpet—supervised the contest, as in the tomb of Neheri in Bersheh, and in the depiction of wrestlers below Ramesses III's appearance window in Medinet Habu. Some scenes of wrestlers are accompanied by short inscriptions that prove to be boastful epithets (challenging speeches). Table 1. Number of wrestling pairs in the published tombs of the...

Twelfth Dynasty

Twelfth Dynasty   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...construct boats, beds, chairs, and a variety of furniture; jewelers stringing necklaces and leatherworkers preparing their hides. The main sites for these rock-cut tombs were Elephantine-Aswan (in the first Upper Egyptian nome), Beni Hasan (in the sixteenth Upper Egyptian nome), Bersheh (in the fifteenth Upper Egyptian nome), Meir (in the fourteenth Upper Egyptian nome), and Asyut (in the thirteenth Upper Egyptian nome), as well as several other nomes. In a tomb at Beni Hasan , dated in the sixth regnal year of Senwosret II, there is a scene of bedouin bringing...

Middle Kingdom

Middle Kingdom   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...these socio-political systems. Unfortunately, archaeology allows only a glimpse into the conditions prevailing in the country. From the late eleventh to mid-twelfth dynasty, there are few upper-class decorated tombs in the provinces (Aswan, Thebes, Qaw el-Kebir, Rifeh, Asyut, Bersheh, Beni Hasan , and Meir)—the tombs of the court circles in the Memphite region were largely destroyed for their stone. Hence the overwhelming majority of tombs from the Middle Kingdom have few written words. They offer much in other spheres of culture, but are silent about the...

Archaism

Archaism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Current Version:
2005

...essential theme of all later representations of country life, especially with its ritual overtones of the destruction of evil manifestations.” During the Middle Kingdom, painting replaced relief decoration in many tombs, particularly in the Middle Egyptian sites of Beni Hasan, Bersheh, and Meir; the wall paintings in these tombs rely on the Old Kingdom for inspiration, in both size and subject matter, although there is also an ample amount of contemporary innovation. During the New Kingdom, wall painting reached its highest level of artistry and greatest...

Artists and Artisans

Artists and Artisans   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
Length:
3,576 words
Illustration(s):
1

...their colleagues. Whether artistic and/or organizational expertise were decisive factors in advancement is not known. Here, two pieces of evidence relating to the logistical skills required in connection with statue manufacture can be cited: in a tomb dated to c. 1850 bce at Bersheh in Middle Egypt, a team of 172 men was shown towing a colossal calcite (Egyptian alabaster) statue of the tomb owner, the nomarch Djehuty-Hotep ; the “controller of works on this statue” figured among the officials involved in the transport of the figure. Some 450 years later ...

Captions

Captions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...“exhortations to work,” and “mocking replies” are still represented among the captions. Among the pure art songs, there is the song to the beef cattle imported from the Near East; another is the song to the field goddess Sechet , sung during the hauling in of the fishing net at Bersheh. Calls of dedication appear on coffins and, during the eleventh dynasty, dog names also appear in captions. During the New Kingdom, the tradition of the calls was continued at first, but from the mid-eighteenth dynasty they became less frequent. On the whole, they became more...

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