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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... (ed.), Women in English Society, 1500–1800 ( 1985 ), Leonore Davidoff and Catherine Hall , Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class, 1780–1850 ( 1987 ), Anne Laurence , Women in England, 1500–1760: A Social History ( 1996 ), Sara Heller Mendelson and Patricia Crawford , Women in Early Modern England, 1550–1720 ( 1998 ), Barbara J. Harris , English Aristocratic Women, 1450–1550: Marriage and Family, Property and Careers ( 2002 ), Bernard Capp, When Gossips Meet: Women, Family and Neighbourhood in Early Modern England (...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...was famous across Europe. In the northern Netherlands, there was almost no book illumination before 1400 . Utrecht, like Bruges, became important from about the 1430s , with painters such as the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg and the supreme, but not prolific, Master of Catherine of Cleves, illuminator of the eponymous book of hours (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, M. 917 and M. 945). Later in the century, distinctive styles of Dutch illumination and coloured penwork point to notable production in Delft, Haarlem, and almost certainly Zwolle, in the...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...inspect a changing display of dinner services laid out on tables and vases set against the walls. The urbane presence of his partner Bentley undoubtedly contributed to its success. In 1774 visitors flocked to see the 952-piece dinner and dessert service ordered by the Empress Catherine of Russia and decorated with hand-painted views of English architectural landmarks and beauty spots. In 1790 they came to marvel at the copy made in Jasper after the Roman cut-glass Barberini or Portland Vase. The original had been acquired by Sir William Hamilton , who sold...

Christian names

Christian names  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The personal names that had been used by people of Anglo‐Saxon and Scandinavian descent mostly fell out of fashion after the Norman Conquest, though some remained in use long enough to be used as ...
way of the cross

way of the cross  

The way of the Cross led Christ from Pilate's praetorium to Golgotha during his Passion; in the 14th and 15th cc., it came to designate an exercise in piety setting ...
blood of Christ

blood of Christ  

The blood struck from Christ’s side by a lance (John 19:34) was central to patristic and medieval theologies of redemption. Conflated with the blood referred to by Christ in instituting ...
Tuileries

Tuileries  

A French royal residence in Paris built in the 16th century. In June 1792 during the French Revolution crowds forced their way into the palace, and on 10 August it was attacked, the Swiss Guard was ...
Goldman, Emma

Goldman, Emma (1869–1940)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
978 words

...anarchist in America, but was also among the most renowned anarchists in the world. Goldman traveled to anarchist congresses in Europe, acted as a conduit for the exchange of ideas within that movement, and hosted visiting radicals like the Russian socialist revolutionary Catherine Breshkovskaya. She featured monthly updates on challenges faced by anarchists across the globe in her magazine, Mother Earth ( 1906–1917 ). Among the causes championed were those of the Mexican revolutionaries Enrique ( 1887–1954 ) and Ricardo Flores Magón ( 1873–1922 ),...

Arctic

Arctic   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
5,095 words
Illustration(s):
4

...to map the coast from there to the west. Laptev explored again in the summer of 1741 , but he failed to map the Chukchi Peninsula—a feat that was not, in fact, accomplished until early in the nineteenth century by Ferdinand von Wrangell and his men, who traveled by land. Catherine II ( r. 1762–1796 ) also initiated exploring expeditions; for example, she sent Lieutenant Ivan Sindt to the Aleutian Islands in 1764 . In 1768–1769 , Pytor Krenitsyn and Mikhail Levashev explored Unalaska and Umnak in the Aleutian Islands, as well as the southern...

Sciences

Sciences   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
6,174 words
Illustration(s):
2

...( 1706–1749 ), Voltaire's mistress, published several scientific studies of her own including an annotated translation of Newton's Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica . Women also became known in the field of anatomical model‐making. Two of these women, Marie Catherine Biheron ( 1719–1786 ) and Anna Morandi Manzolini ( 1716–1774 ), were especially prominent. By the nineteenth century, the number of women in science had increased. At the end of the eighteenth century, Mary Wollstonecraft ( 1759–1797 ) had proposed a theory of equality in...

Catherine II

Catherine II (1729–1796)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,586 words

...it the finest monument to the age. He continued to laud Catherine's generosity, culture, and intelligence for the rest of his life. His influence on Catherine was profound—she called herself his écolière —and even more extraordinary was his influence on the educated Russians around her. By then, Moscow and St. Petersburg had more than a handful of secular poets, writers, and scientists who had read Voltaire, Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle , or Pierre Bayle in the original, but Catherine's approval of the sage of Ferney and the generous subsidies she...

Bartolomeo, Fra

Bartolomeo, Fra   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
234 words

...by facial expressions of rapt devotion, deeply folded drapery, and an air of gravity and decorum. Fra Bartolomeo's surviving paintings include a Vision of St Bernard ( 1504–7 , Uffizi), God the Father with Mary Magdalene and Catherine of Siena ( 1507 , Villa Guinigi, Lucca), The Madonna in Glory with Saints ( 1512 , Besançon Cathedral), at least two versions of The Mystic Marriage of St Catherine (Louvre, 1511 , and Accademia, Florence, 1512 ), and many Madonnas, often pictured (like those of Raphael ) together with the infant Jesus and his cousin...

Palissy, Bernard

Palissy, Bernard   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
356 words

...for heresy in 1585 and died as a prisoner in the Bastille du Bucy. Little of his pottery has survived intact, but some 5,000 fragments have been excavated from the Tuileries and in land close to the Louvre. MDA ; Marguerite Boudon-Duaner, Bernard Palissy: Le Potier du Roi ( 1989 ); Leonard Amico , Bernard Palissy: In Pursuit of Earthly Paradise ( 1996...

Spiritual direction

Spiritual direction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
644 words

...spiritual advice addressed to individuals comprises letters of very personalized counsel as well as works aimed at a wider audience. Renowned among the former are letters of Ambrose , Jerome , Gregory the Great , Anselm of Canterbury and Catherine of Siena ; one example (among very many) of the latter is Bernard of Clairvaux 's De consideratione , ostensibly an offering of advice to Pope Eugenius III but also a veritable treatise on prelacy. The phenomenon of intentional relationships between guides and disciples is rooted in early monasticism ....

Tuileries gardens

Tuileries gardens   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
531 words

...plantings. The rectangular compartments of Catherine's gardens contained features such as fountains , a maze , and an enormous sundial . Some compartments contained fruit trees, and there were also trees planted in quincunx (Latin; ‘by fives’), with one tree at each corner and the fifth in the middle; the decussation (if viewed from above) was significant in the numerology of the period, and the feature subsequently appeared in English gardens of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Elsewhere in Catherine's garden there was a ceramic grotto ...

blood of Christ

blood of Christ   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
257 words

...as a substitution for Old Testament sacrifice. From the 11th century on, Christ’s wounds and blood became important motifs in popular piety. A phrase attributed to *Bernard of Clairvaux , and used by *Pope Clement VI in the *bull Unigenitus ( 1343 ), asserted that one drop of Christ’s blood was sufficient to redeem all humankind. *Visionaries such as *Peter Damian and *Catherine of Siena claimed to drink blood from Christ’s side. In the central MA, a number of sites, such as Weingarten, claimed to possess *relics of Christ’s blood. The 14th...

Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
316 words

...of Arc or the Maid of Orléans or (French) Jeanne d'Arc or Jeanne la Pucelle ( 1412–31 ), French visionary, born into a peasant family in the village of Domrémy (Champagne). At the age of 13 she began to hear voices which she identified as those of SS Michael , Catherine of Antioch , and Margaret of Antioch . The voices urged her to liberate France from the English, and to that end she was instructed to raise the siege of Orléans and conduct King Charles VII to his coronation at Reims. Having accomplished these tasks she wanted to return home,...

Saint-Maurice d'agaune

Saint-Maurice d'agaune   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
577 words

...to the Eastern practice of perpetual praise. Well situated on the Great St Bernard route, the establishment prospered; its abbots were at the same time bishops of Sion, which made a regime of exemption , which was contested up to the Valaisan revolution of 1798 , very theoretical. The Carolingian reform transformed the abbey into a community of secular canons under the leadership of a secular abbot responsible for military control of the Road from the Great St Bernard pass to Lac Léman. Saint-Maurice became one of the capitals of the second...

mysticism, Christian

mysticism, Christian   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
490 words

...Following monastic reform movements and a widespread renewal of religious life in the 12th century, the works of the *Cistercians (for example, *Bernard of Clairvaux ) and the Victorines, with their systematic ordering of the contemplative life, had far-reaching effects on mystical practice. After 1200 , writings by and about women mystics, such as *Birgitta of Sweden , *Julian of Norwich , and *Catherine of Siena , became more common, and mystical teaching spread to those outside the cloister. Other classic works in the mystical tradition include The...

way of the cross

way of the cross   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
484 words

...chronological route ended by prevailing over the old reverse route. J. M. Picard , “ Croix (chemin de) ”, DSp , 2, 2, 1953, 2576-2606. G. Bresc-Bautier , “ Les imitations du Saint-Sépulcre de Jérusalem (IXe-XVe siècle). Archéologie d'une dévotion ”, RHSp , 50, 1974, 319-342. Catherine...

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