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Bernard Kouchner

Bernard Kouchner is a distinguished if often controversial French political and humanitarian activist whose advocacy of the “right to intervene” in situations of great civilian suffering ...

Bernard Kouchner

Bernard Kouchner   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,965 words

...Kouchner has been decorated by many governments, including that of the United Kingdom, where he was made a Knight Commander of the British Empire. He has also been given several important human rights awards, including the Dag Hammarskjöld Prize and, twice, the Prix Europa. Background Bernard Kouchner was born on 1 November 1939 in Avignon to a Protestant mother, Léone, and a Jewish father, Georges. His grandfather was also named Bernard Kouchner. An Eastern European immigrant, he died with his wife in Auschwitz during World War II. Georges Kouchner was a...

Bernard Kouchner

Bernard Kouchner  

Bernard Kouchner is a distinguished if often controversial French political and humanitarian activist whose advocacy of the “right to intervene” in situations of great civilian suffering has been ...
Doctors without Borders

Doctors without Borders   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,182 words

...thousand local personnel. Origins. MSF was created in France 1971 by a small group of doctors and medical journalists. Its key founder was Bernard Kouchner ( b. 1939 ), who traveled to Nigeria with the French Red Cross in 1968 to bring medical care to civilians in the breakaway region of Biafra. After witnessing what he and others believed were acts of genocide against the Biafran people, Kouchner returned to France and denounced the Nigerian regime, in violation of his agreement with the neutral Red Cross. In December 1971 , he and a dozen...

Sarkozy, Nicolas

Sarkozy, Nicolas (28 Jan. 1955)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
823 words

...cabinet gave an indication of the break with the past that he wished his administration to be; half the cabinet were women, his campaign spokesman Rachida Dati , as Justice Minister, became the first ever cabinet member of North African origin, and his Foreign Minister was Bernard Kouchner , a member of the Socialist Party (who then expelled him) and founder of Médecins sans Frontières. He instituted various tax and trade union reforms (but only modified rather than abolished the 35 hour week) and also gained approval for some constitutional changes (on the casting...

Responsibility to Protect

Responsibility to Protect   Reference library

James A. Paul and Céline Nahory

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,456 words

...to intervene in other states in defense of just causes. Bernard Kouchner, an advocate of ethical activism in foreign policy, took a newly created post in 1988 as the French minister for humanitarian action. In 1997, British Prime Minister Tony Blair and his foreign secretary, Robin Cook, came to power with a commitment to such ideas. Key theorists included the Canadian intellectual Michael Ignatieff and the Australian politician Gareth Evans. Other thinkers actively working on the topic include Bernard-Henri Lévy, Francis Deng, Mario Bettati, Jennifer Welsh...

Humanitarianism

Humanitarianism   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,060 words

...assistant administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development ( USAID ), of a “humanitarian crisis” with hundreds of thousands of starving children; even its performance borrowed the same imagery, with the French secretary of state for humanitarian action, Bernard Kouchner, pictured on television with a bag of rice on his shoulder as he landed on the shore at Mogadishu. This intervention came to an abrupt end after a deadly battle in which eighteen U.S. Marines and hundreds of Somali civilians lost their lives; the fiasco was the main reason...

Doctors without Borders

Doctors without Borders   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,028 words

...to evolve within MSF. One major schism within the MSF movement occurred over a difference in approach to “witnessing” in 1979 , when some MSF members (including Bernard Kouchner , one of the founders) chartered a ship to provide assistance to Vietnamese refugees, triggering widespread disagreement within the organization about the extent to which MSF should aim at garnering media attention. Kouchner left MSF and later went on to found Doctors of the World ( Médecins du Monde ) in 1980 . Financing. In the interest of maintaining an impartial and neutral...

Darfur

Darfur   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,127 words

...actors. The key lesson I have learned in nearly forty years of humanitarian work … is that in between theory and practice is a very important field called politics. Like any other field, aid work is intertwined with politics. We must always be conscious of this. —Dr. Bernard Kouchner, cofounder, Doctors without Borders ( Médecins sans frontières ), 2 March, 2004 . [ See also African Union: Banjul Charter ; African Union: Commission and Court on Human Rights ; Amnesty International ; Crimes against Humanity ; Doctors without Borders ; Ethnic...

Sarkozy, Nicolas

Sarkozy, Nicolas (28 Jan. 1955)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
682 words

...cabinet gave an indication of the break with the past that he wished his administration to be; half the cabinet were women, his campaign spokesman Rachida Dati , as Justice Minister, became the first ever cabinet member of North African origin, and his Foreign Minister was Bernard Kouchner , a member of the Socialist Party (who then expelled him) and founder of Médecins sans Frontières. He instituted various tax and trade union reforms (but only modified rather than abolished the 35 hour week) and also gained approval for some constitutional changes (on the...

Critical Perspectives on Humanitarian Discourses

Critical Perspectives on Humanitarian Discourses   Reference library

Marouf Hasian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Communication and Critical Cultural Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
8,645 words

...wine in new bottles—the International Red Cross had been talking about the need to prevent large-scale massacres during the 1860s—others were convinced that this “new” orientation was a turning point for 21st-century humanitarianism. In 2008 the French foreign minister, Bernard Kouchner, tried to argue (unsuccessfully) that the world had a “responsibility to protect” the people of Burma after Cyclone Nargis hit that country, but three years later R2P rationales resurfaced to justify the NATO bombings of Gaddafi in Libya. Using language that sounded eerily...

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