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Bauhaus

A school of applied arts established by Walter Gropius in Weimar in 1919 and noted for its refined functionalist approach to architecture and industrial design. The socialist principles on ...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
146 words

... German school for architecture and the applied arts, which played an important role in developing links between design and industry. Founded by Walter Gropius in 1919 , it aimed to combine great craftsmanship with an ideal of an all-embracing modern art. Though Bauhaus specialized in architecture and design, several progressive painters, including Kandinsky and Klee , taught there. The studios focused on designing products for manufacturing industry. Typical Bauhaus design was severe and impersonal. In 1928 Hannes Meyer succeeded Gropius as...

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The Oxford Companion to German Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
122 words

... , a ‘comprehensive’ art school, which was founded in Weimar in 1919 with official support (Staatliches Bauhaus) under the direction of W. Gropius ( 1883–1969 ). It stressed the interdependence of the plastic arts under the primacy of architecture, and the importance of craftsmanship. Gropius recruited a number of notable teachers, among them L. Feininger , W. Kandinsky , and P. Klee . In 1925 the Bauhaus moved to Dessau as the Hochschule für Gestaltung, though the familiar name remained in use. It was closed in 1932 , reopened in Berlin in ...

Bauhaus

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The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
138 words

... A movement established in 1919 by Walter Gropius at his school in Bauhaus, Weimar, Germany, in an attempt to break down the traditional barriers between arts and crafts and thereby end the elitist status of art. In 1923 the painter and dancer Oskar Schlemmer set up the Bauhaus Stage Workshop, which was particularly influential on dance in the 1950s, and the important designer Moholy-Nagy taught at the school. Bauhaus moved to Dessau in 1925 and more fully embraced a new unity of art and technology. In 1927 Gropius designed a ‘ total theatre...

Bauhaus

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
222 words

...who renamed it the Bauhaus and undertook extensive reorganization. A generally Expressionist aesthetic was soon replaced by the growing influence of Functionalism and an interest in industrial design, and artists of the calibre of Kandinsky, Klee, Feininger, and Schlemmer came to work at the Bauhaus. In 1925 it removed to Dessau in Anhalt where it acquired a splendid new glass and reinforced concrete building designed and built by Gropius in 1925–6 . The architect Mies van der Rohe later became director and the Bauhaus was forced to transfer to...

Bauhaus

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
535 words

...the Bauhaus into a modern laboratory of prototypes for industrial mass production. This applies particularly to the classic, innovative designs of light fittings by such designers as Marianne Brandt , Karl J. Jucker ( 1902–97 ), Wilhelm Wagenfeld and Gyula Pap ( 1899–1983 ). G. Naylor : The Bauhaus (London, 1968) A. Rowland : The Bauhaus Source Book (Oxford, 1990) E. S. Hochman : Bauhaus: Crucible of Modernism (New York, 1997) M. Kentgens-Craig : The Bauhaus and America: First Contacts, 1919–1936 (Cambridge, MA, 1999) A. Bartram : Bauhaus,...

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The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
203 words

...1930 . Although Nazi opposition forced the Bauhaus to move to Berlin in 1932 and forced its closure in 1933 , its ideals were perpetuated throughout the 1930s and 1940s by staff and students. Moholy-Nagy, for example, founded the New Bauhaus in Chicago ( 1937 ). The disciplined style of the school, based on the cube, rectangle, and circle, and its belief in truth to materials, widely influenced European architecture and design, re-emerging in later developments like Op art . Yvonne Jones Westphal, U. , The Bauhaus ...

Bauhaus

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The Companion to Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
144 words

... German art school, founded by Walter Gropius , originally situated in Weimar ( 1919–25 ), then active in Dessau ( 1925–32 ), where most of the theatre works were created. Due to right-wing pressure the school was forced to relocate to Berlin ( 1932–3 ) and then to Chicago. The first phase of the Bauhaus was strongly influenced by *expressionism ; during the Dessau years a new *constructivist and technological orientation gave rise to the classic Bauhaus style. The principal aim of the institution was to overcome the division between arts and crafts...

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A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
748 words

...then) who objected to the scandalously mismanaged and pretentious Bauhaus, but traditional craftsmen and designers. After Weimar had proved hostile, the industrial town of Dessau became host to the Bauhaus, and a new building, designed by Gropius, was erected there ( 1925–6 ), which became a paradigm of the International-Modern style: the complex included three wings, a large glass-fronted workshop block , and residences for the ‘Masters’, or professors, at the institution. The Bauhaus became the Anhalt State School of Art, and a department of...

Bauhaus

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The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
759 words

...), one of the greatest architects of the 20th century. Mies tried to rid the Bauhaus of its political associations and thereby make it a less easy target for its right-wing opponents, but in 1932 the Dessau parliament closed the school. In an attempt to keep it alive Mies rented a disused factory in Berlin and reopened the Bauhaus there as a private enterprise, but it was closed by the Nazis in April 1933 , soon after Hitler assumed power. In its last few years the Bauhaus was dominated by architecture, but it produced a great range of goods, with many...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
775 words

...), one of the greatest architects of the 20th century. Mies tried to rid the Bauhaus of its political associations and thereby make it a less easy target for its right-wing opponents, but in 1932 the Dessau parliament closed the school. In an attempt to keep it alive Mies rented a disused factory in Berlin and reopened the Bauhaus there as a private enterprise, but it was closed by the Nazis in April 1933 , soon after Hitler assumed power. In its last few years the Bauhaus was dominated by architecture, but it produced a great range of goods, with many...

Bauhaus

Bauhaus (1919–33)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Modern Design (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,132 words

...ideas that were at the heart of the Bauhaus outlook from the early 1920s onwards. The achievements of the school were recognized by the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1938 when it mounted an exhibition devoted to the Bauhaus from 1919 to 1928 . However, this proved attractive to many historians and ideologues in the aftermath of the Second World War. They were further aided in their task by the establishment of the Bauhaus Archive in Darmstadt in 1960 (moving to Berlin in 1971 ), the formation of a Bauhaus Archive in Dessau and the mounting of a...

Bauhaus

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Günter Berghaus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
223 words

... German art school, founded by Walter Gropius , originally situated in Weimar ( 1919–25 ), then active in Dessau ( 1925–32 ), where most of the theatre works were created. Due to right-wing pressure the school was forced to relocate to Berlin ( 1932–3 ) and then emigrate to Chicago . The first phase of the Bauhaus was strongly influenced by expressionism ; during the Dessau years a new constructivist and technological orientation gave rise to the classic Bauhaus style. The principal aim of the institution was to overcome the division between arts...

Bauhaus

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A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,293 words

...reopened the Bauhaus there as a private enterprise, but it was closed by the Nazis in April 1933 , soon after Hitler assumed power. In its last few years the Bauhaus was dominated by architecture, but it produced a great range of goods, with many of them (furniture, textiles, and electric light fittings in particular) being adopted for large-scale manufacture. They were highly varied in appearance, but the style that is generally thought typical of the Bauhaus was severe, geometric, and undecorated. The school published a journal ( Bauhaus , 1926–31 ) and...

Bauhaus

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Detlef Mertins

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,652 words
Illustration(s):
2

.... Bauhaus Lecture Notes, 1930–1933 . Amsterdam: Architectura/Natura, 1991. Bayer, Herbert , Walter Gropius , and Ise Gropius , eds. Bauhaus, 1919–1928 . New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1938. Bergdoll, Barry , and Leah Dickerman , eds. Bauhaus 1919–1933: Workshops for Modernity . New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2009. Dearstyne, Howard . Inside the Bauhaus . Edited by David Spaeth . New York: Rizzoli, 1986. Droste, Magdelena . The Bauhaus: 1919–1933: Reform and Avant-Garde . Los Angeles: Taschen, 2006. Droste, Magdalena . Experiment Bauhaus ....

Bauhaus

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Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,567 words

...Bibliography 50 Jahre Bauhaus . Stuttgart, 1968. Exhibition catalog. Banham, Reyner . Theory and Design in the First Machine Age . London, 1960. Bauhaus-Archiv Museum für Gestaltung: Sammlungs-Katalog: Architektur Design Malerei Grafik Kunstpädagogik . Berlin, 1981. Bax, Marty . Bauhaus Lecture Notes, 1930–1933 . Amsterdam, 1991. Bayer, Herbert , Walter Gropius , and Ise Gropius , eds. Bauhaus, 1919–1928 . New York, 1938. Dearstyne, Howard . Inside the Bauhaus . Edited by David Spaeth . New York, 1986. Droste, Magdelena . Bauhaus, 1919–1933 . Cologne,...

Bauhaus

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Peter Blundell Jones

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
518 words

...created by Pevsner and Giedion, he presented the activities of the tiny Bauhaus as the epicentre of German Modernism despite all other claims and tendencies, and as a result modernist architecture is known in the United States as ‘the Bauhaus Style’. The school naturally also provided the model for revised courses when Gropius became head at Harvard, which diffused into revised curricula in schools of architecture and design throughout the world. A hotbed of talent, the Bauhaus, its staff, and students exerted a commanding influence, but it could hardly...

Bauhaus typography

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The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
57 words

... typography The creative centre of industrial design in Germany, the Bauhaus ( 1918–33 ) included typography and advertising in its curriculum. Bauhaus typography is characterized by preference for *sans serif types, bold lines, dots, and diagonals. Among its leading exponents were Herbert Bayer, Joost Schmidt, and *Moholy-Nagy . Wulf-Dieter von Lucius W. Herzogenrath , 50 Jahre Bauhaus ...

Bauhaus Dances

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The Oxford Dictionary of Dance (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
54 words

...Bauhaus Dances Experimental dances by the painter Oskar Schlemmer which sought to explore the relationship between a moving figure and space. His research into dance began after he joined the Bauhaus in 1920 . In 1925 at Dessau he presented his so-called ‘Bauhaustänze’, which were essentially analytical studies of movement. See also Triadic Ballet...

Bauhaus, photography and the

Bauhaus, photography and the   Reference library

Rolf Sachsse

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
435 words

...which offered the only curriculum in ‘modern photography’ worthy of the name, the Bauhaus was of secondary importance. Notwithstanding the many experiments in photography and photomontage that took place there, and the oeuvre of László Moholy‐Nagy, as a school it was less influential in this field than in industrial design, art theory, and basic pedagogics. RS Rolf Sachsse Fiedler, J. (ed.), Photography at the Bauhaus (1990). Bauhaus‐Archiv Berlin , Fotografie am Bauhaus ...

Bauhaus, Dance and the

Bauhaus, Dance and the   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
1,688 words

...carried placards bearing theatrical terms, such as “conflict,” “suspense,” and “intermission,” which they acted out. Even the famous thematic Bauhaus parties drew costumed revelers ready to engage in improvisations provoked by the stage students, while the Bauhaus jazz band provided music for the kicking, stomping “Bauhaus dance” that found its way into the stage productions. The move in 1925/26 to the Bauhaus building in Dessau, with its specially designed stage, permitted Schlemmer and his students their fullest experimentation in theater. At a...

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