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Barker hypothesis

Syn: thrifty phenotype hypothesis. A hypothesis proposed in 1990 by the British epidemiologist David Barker (b. 1939) that intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and premature ...

Barker hypothesis

Barker hypothesis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Barker hypothesis ( thrifty phenotype hypothesis ) A hypothesis proposed in 1990 by the British epidemiologist David Barker ( 1938–2013 ) that intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and premature birth have a causal relationship to the origins of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, in middle age. The evidence is presented in Barker's book Fetal and Infant Origins of Adult Disease ( 1992 ). See also developmental origins of health and disease . ...

Barker hypothesis

Barker hypothesis  

Syn: thrifty phenotype hypothesis. A hypothesis proposed in 1990 by the British epidemiologist David Barker (b. 1939) that intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and premature birth have ...
A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,220 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...included an 8-year-old Ellen Terry entering as Robin Goodfellow on a pop-up mushroom. This tradition of spectacle peaked in Beerbohm Tree ’s production ( 1900 ): his wood featured real live rabbits. More indicative of 20th-century Dreams to come was Harley Granville-Barker ’s controversial 1914 production at the Savoy, with its gilded, other-worldly, puppet-like fairies. Since then the play has been both immensely popular (one of the most frequently revived in the canon, especially in outdoor venues: it appeared every year at the Open Air...

programming, metabolic

programming, metabolic  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The idea that nutrition in utero (and hence maternal nutrition) and early post-natal life leads to epigenetic programming of metabolism, and predisposes to chronic disease in later life. Sometimes ...
intrauterine growth retardation

intrauterine growth retardation  

A condition in which fetal development proceeds more slowly than normal, developmental milestones are reached later than expected, and prospects of delivery of a healthy full-term infant are ...
market value

market value  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
*Inheritance tax is charged on the market value of property at death and capital gains tax is charged on the market value of an asset at the time of disposal. In both cases, statute gives only a ...
non-insulin-dependent diabetes

non-insulin-dependent diabetes  

(NIDDM)Syn: adult-onset diabetes, type 2 diabetes. This form of adult-onset diabetes is commonly associated with obesity and usually responds well to a strict dietary regimen; it does not usually ...
cultural relativism

cultural relativism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
[Th]The position that there is no universal standard to measure cultures by, and that all cultures are equally valid and must be understood in their own terms.
life course

life course  

The natural history of human life. A term for conditions that evolve over a large part or all of the life span from infancy, or even from conception, through adolescence, adult life, and senescence, ...
developmental origins of health and disease

developmental origins of health and disease   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...developmental origins of health and disease ( DOHD ) Originally, the hypothesis was that cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes originated through developmental plasticity in response to under-nutrition. A hypothesis proposed in 1990 by the epidemiologist David Barker ( 1938–2013 ) suggested that under-nutrition and other insults during critical periods of fetal development not only reduce birth weight but also have permanent effects on (or “program”) the structure and metabolism of body tissues and systems, causing hypertension, coronary heart...

Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis

Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis The hypothesis proposed by Nick Hales and David Barker in 1992, that an undernourished fetus becomes thrifty. 771 Fetal undernutrition leads to impaired development of the pancreas, liver, and other tissues (e.g., muscle), leading to low insulin secretion and insulin resistance, which maintains high levels of sugar in the fetal bloodstream to preserve brain development, but may trade off muscle development. Once adopted, this thrifty behavior becomes permanent and, combined with adiposity in later life, leads to type 2...

intrauterine growth retardation

intrauterine growth retardation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...It is defined as weight less than the 10th percentile for a given gestational age. It is caused by malnutrition, maternal disease, and placental abnormality. It may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in later life. See also Barker hypothesis . ...

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...insulin. It is increasingly common at younger ages in wealthy countries and is associated with childhood obesity. In many low-income countries where undernutrition has long been common, NIDDM has become prevalent, perhaps because of a “thrifty gene” diathesis ( see Barker hypothesis ). ...

Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

Developmental Origins of Health and Disease   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHD) Originally, the hypothesis that cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes originate through developmental Plasticity in response to undernutrition. A hypothesis proposed in 1990 by the epidemiologist David Barker ( 1938-2013 ) that undernutrition and other insults during critical periods of fetal development not only reduce birth weight, but also have permanent effects on (or “program”) the structure and metabolism of body tissues and systems, and cause hypertension, coronary heart disease, and...

acoustics

acoustics   Reference library

Andrew D. Barker

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
708 words

...of common sense, guided by the principle that a sound's qualities reflect those of its causes. W. Burkert , Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism (1972; Ger. orig. 1962); H. Gottschalk , Hermes 1968; A. C. Bowen , Ancient Philosophy 1982; A. Barker , Greek Musical Writings 2 (1989). Andrew D. ...

Aristoxenus

Aristoxenus   Reference library

Andrew D. Barker

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,122 words

...C. E. Ruelle, Collection des auteurs grecs 1 (1871); Eng. trans. and notes, A. Barker, Greek Musical Writings 2 (1989). Rhythmics: texts, Ger. trans., and comm., R. Westphal, Melik und Rhythmik (1893); more complete texts and It. trans., G. B. Pighi, Aristoxeni Rhythmica (1969); critical texts, with passages from Psellus and elsewhere, Eng. trans., and comm., L. Pearson , Aristoxenus: Elementa Rhythmica (1990); Eng. trans. of remnant of El. Rhythm. bk. 2, A. Barker, Greek Musical Writings 2 (1989). Fragments: F. Wehrli , Die Schule des...

Aristoxenus

Aristoxenus   Quick reference

Andrew D. Barker

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
944 words

...even Pythagorean and Platonist writers drew freely on his analyses. His conservative attitude to musical history became canonical, and authors of the imperial period still echoed his nostalgia for the pure styles of the Greek 5th cent. long after their sounds had died. Andrew D. ...

Fearn, John

Fearn, John (1768–1837)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,109 words

...on Human Consciousness ( 1811 ). A corrected and enlarged edition was published in 1812 with a revised title. Of this second edition he presented a signed copy to Dugald Stewart on 15 June 1812 , which Stewart would later attribute to ‘an acute and penetrating … genius’ ( Barker , 1828 , p. 593). In this edition, Fearn abandons the focus on mental operations, which characterized the previous one, to ascertain the distinct and extended existence of the mind. According to him, feelings or ideas are only ‘ Modes of Consciousness’ ( An Essay on...

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction   Reference library

Nick Branch

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,780 words

...animal exploitation strategies and their socio-religious significance, as well as human rituals and living conditions, and animal husbandry. [ See also Diet, Reconstruction of ; Environmental Analysis ; Megafaunal Extinction ; Paleopathology ; Pompeii and Herculaneum . ] Barker, G. Prehistoric Farming in Europe, 1985. Bell, M. , and M. J. C. Walker . Late Quaternary Environmental Change , 2004. Branch, N. P. , M. G. Canti , P. Clark , and C. S. M. Turney . Environmental Archaeology: Theoretical and Practical Approaches , 2005. Butzer, K....

Kepler,                 Johannes

Kepler, Johannes (1571–1630)   Reference library

Charlotte Methuen

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,374 words

... J. Kepler , Gesammelte Werke , 22 vols (Munich 1938–) [= KGW]. Secondary literature P. Barker and B. R. Goldstein , ‘Theological Foundations Kepler's Astronomy’, in J. H. Brooke , M. J. Osler , and J. van der Meer (eds), Science in Theistic Contexts. Cognitive Dimensions (Chicago...

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