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Overview

Babylonian captivity

Subject: Religion

Period (586–538 bce) during which many Israelites were held in exile in Babylon. The phrase was applied by Petrarch to the Church during the period when the papacy was at Avignon ...

Babylonian captivity

Babylonian captivity   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
46 words

... captivity . The captivity in Babylon to which a significant part of the population of Judah was deported in two batches c. 597 and c. 586 bc . The expression is also used metaphorically of the exile of the Popes to Avignon from 1309 to 1377...

Babylonian captivity

Babylonian captivity   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
38 words

... captivity . Period ( 586–538 bce ) during which many Israelites were held in exile in Babylon. The phrase was applied by Petrarch to the Church during the period when the papacy was at Avignon ( 1309–77 ): see ANTIPOPE...

Babylonian captivity

Babylonian captivity   Reference library

Gordon Campbell

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
175 words

... captivity The captivity in Babylon, to which a significant proportion of the population of Judah was deported in two batches c . 597 and c . 586 bc . They were permitted to return after the Persian ruler, Cyrus, had captured Babylon c . 539 bc . The phrase has repeatedly been used as metaphor with reference to the Church. Petrarch and his contemporaries used it in reference to the influence of French kings on the papacy during the exile of the popes to Avignon from 1309 to 1377. Luther ’s treatise De C aptivitate Babylonica E...

Babylonian Captivity

Babylonian Captivity   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
77 words

... Captivity Deportation of the Jews to Babylon , between the capture of Jerusalem in 586 bc by Nebuchadnezzar and the reformation of a Palestinian Jewish state ( c .538 bc ) by Cyrus the Great . Many Jewish religious institutions, such as synagogues , were founded in the period of exile and parts of the Hebrew Bible also date from this time. The term was later applied to the exile of the popes at Avignon ( 1309–77 ). See also Diaspora ; Great...

Babylonian captivity

Babylonian captivity   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
117 words

... captivity Babylon was synonymous in Christian tradition with immorality, and so the deportation of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar in 597 and 586 bc , scene of the books of Daniel and Jeremiah, became for *Petrarch a metaphor for the residence of the *papal court in *Avignon . That sojourn began with the *election of *Pope John XXII in 1316 , and ended either with the return of Gregory XI to Italy in 1376 or with the deposition of Benedict XIII of Avignon in 1417 . See also antipope ; constance, council of ; schism, great...

Babylonian Captivity

Babylonian Captivity   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
28 words
Babylonian Captivity

Babylonian Captivity   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
51 words
Babylonian Captivity

Babylonian Captivity   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
51 words
Babylonian Captivity

Babylonian Captivity   Reference library

Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
32 words
Babylonian Captivity

Babylonian Captivity   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
48 words
Babylonian captivity

Babylonian captivity  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Period (586–538 bce) during which many Israelites were held in exile in Babylon. The phrase was applied by Petrarch to the Church during the period when the papacy was at Avignon (1309–77): see ...
Jeremiah

Jeremiah   Reference library

Kathleen M. O'Connor and Kathleen M. O'Connor

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on the occasion of Egyptian efforts to deflect the Babylonian army from Jerusalem, Zedekiah sends messengers to request prayer from Jeremiah. This international power struggle gives Zedekiah hope that Egypt will overcome Babylonian hegemony and avert the threat to Judah. Jeremiah's reply to Zedekiah is unequivocal. Babylon will prevail because that is YHWH's plan. Even if the Babylonian army had no one left but the wounded, they would miraculously rise up and burn the city ( v. 10 ). vv. 11–16 (Captivity), after this emphatic crushing of false hope,...

Baruch

Baruch   Reference library

Alison Salvesen and Alison Salvesen

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,711 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the city. According to Jeremiah, Baruch was taken only to Egypt ( 43:7 ), but both the book of Baruch and rabbinic tradition say that Baruch went to Babylon. In fact, the Babylonian Talmud improbably states that Baruch taught Ezra there ( b. Meg 16b)! It is possible that a combination of the Lord's promise to spare his life wherever he went ( Jer 45:5 ), Jeremiah's letter to the Babylonian exiles in Jer 29 , and the presence of Seraiah, Baruch's brother, in Babylon ( Jer 51:59–64 ) suggest that Baruch journeyed there. Bar 1:8 may imply that Baruch returned...

Haggai

Haggai   Reference library

D. L. Petersen and D. L. Petersen

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,551 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...highlight the special role exercised by those who had been in Babylon, one may theorize that the remnant refers to those who had only recently returned to Jerusalem ( cf. Wolff 1988 ). Such an inference is consistent with Ezra 3:8 , ‘and all who had come to Jerusalem from the captivity’, and the more general prominence of ‘the congregation of the exiles’ ( Ezra 10:8 ) or ‘returned exiles’ ( Ezra 8:35 ). The chronicle is stylized using traditional religious vocabulary: ‘the people feared the Lord ’ ( v. 12 ), ‘the Lord stirred up the spirit of…’ ( v. 14 )....

Ezekiel

Ezekiel   Reference library

J. Galambush and J. Galambush

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
34,333 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...589–570 bce ) offered token resistance before withdrawing, leaving Jerusalem to the Babylonians, who in 586 bce captured and burned the city. Zedekiah escaped by night, but was overtaken by the Babylonians at Riblah and forced to witness the killing of his two sons before being himself blinded. Massive deportations followed Nebuchadrezzar's victory, and Zedekiah was replaced by Gedaliah, a non-Davidic overseer whose title is not specified in either Israelite or Babylonian sources. Nebuchadrezzar continued his attempt to subdue the eastern Mediterranean...

Ezra–Nehemiah

Ezra–Nehemiah   Reference library

Daniel L. Smith-Christopher and Daniel L. Smith-Christopher

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,603 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...( see Betylon 1992 : vi. 1076–89; Zograph 1977 ; Morkholm 1991 ), but we can generalize to get the following picture. Basing our calculations on a Persian gold daric at 8.4 g., and a mina as 50 shekels of silver (but 60 in the Babylonian standard), we can convert to metric weights: 512,400 g. of gold and 1,337,500 g. (Babylonian standard, 1,605,000 g.) of silver. This results in an average of 8.04 to 9.64 silver shekels per person, and 1.96 darics of gold per person (the relative value of gold to silver would have been 13. 3:1 ). Is this a great amount of...

Tobit

Tobit   Reference library

Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ and Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,111 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Enemessaros ): the Assyrian king Shalmaneser V (727–722 bce ) began the siege of Samaria, capital of the northern kingdom ( 2 Kings 17:5 ), but it capitulated only after his death (721), to his successor, the usurper Sargon II (722–705), who eventually deported Israelites to captivity in Assyria ( 2 Kings 17:6; cf. 18:9–13 ). Thisbe was a Galilean town otherwise unknown. Kedesh Naphtali was a town in Upper Galilee, mentioned in Josh 20:7 . From it Tiglath-pileser III (745–727) had earlier (733–732) deported Jews to Assyria ( 2 Kings 15:29 ). Asher was...

Introduction to the Apocrypha

Introduction to the Apocrypha   Reference library

Martin Goodman

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,268 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the homeland of the Jews throughout this period, and by its end Jerusalem was one of the greatest cities of the eastern Mediterranean, but there was also a large Jewish population in the diaspora. Some of these Jews had been carried into captivity in Babylonia at the time of the destruction of the First Temple and the Babylonian community remained considerable throughout the Second Temple period, although little is known of its history. The diaspora in the eastern Mediterranean world outside Israel grew rapidly from the third century bce to the first century ...

Isaiah

Isaiah   Reference library

R. Coggins and R. Coggins

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
64,792 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from ch. 40 all this has changed; the people addressed are pictured as being in Babylon, and Cyrus of Persia, who overthrew the Babylonian empire, is mentioned by name ( 44:28; 45:1 ). Cyrus became king in 550 bce , and if we are to use any of the normal criteria of historical assessment the words referring to him must have been written after that date. It is generally agreed, therefore, that chs. 40–55 come from a Babylonian setting and should be dated in the 540s. Chs. 56–66 offer fewer clear indications of date, but the general consensus has been to...

Genesis

Genesis   Reference library

R. N. Whybray and R. N. Whybray

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
35,219 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...terrifying darkness—add to the solemnity of the event. The smoking fire pot and the flaming torch ( v. 17 ) represent YHWH's passing between the rows of animals to symbolize his binding himself to keep the covenant. vv. 13–16 are a ‘prophecy after the event’ foretelling the captivity in Egypt and the Exodus; its purpose is to account for the long gap between promise and fulfilment. The 400 years of v. 13 and the ‘fourth generation’ of v. 16 can hardly be reconciled; it has been suggested that v. 16 , which foreshadows the Israelites' conquest of the...

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