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Babylon

Subject: Religion

An ancient city in Mesopotamia, the capital of Babylonia in the 2nd millennium bc under Hammurabi. The city (of which only ruins now remain) lay on the Euphrates and was noted by Classical ...

Babylon

Babylon   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
65 words

... Middle Eastern empire to which the Jews were forcibly exiled, as described by the prophet Jeremiah. The Babylonian captivity is lamented in Psalm 137, ‘By the rivers of Babylon’. In the Book of Revelation and St Augustine 's City of God the earthly Babylon is the symbolic opposite of the heavenly Jerusalem . Protestant writers often identified Catholic Rome with Babylon. See Bible...

Babylon

Babylon   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
65 words

... Middle Eastern empire to which the Jews were forcibly exiled, as described by the prophet Jeremiah. The Babylonian captivity is lamented in Psalm 137, ‘By the rivers of Babylon’. In the Book of Revelation and St Augustine 's City of God the earthly Babylon is the symbolic opposite of the heavenly Jerusalem . Protestant writers often identified Catholic Rome with Babylon. See Bible...

Babylon

Babylon   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...release by cyrus , following his conquest of Babylon. Babylonian captivity of the papacy See avignon popes . Hanging Gardens of Babylon, The See under hang . Whore of Babylon, The See under whore...

Babylon

Babylon   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
61 words

... Ancient city on the River Euphrates in Mesopotamia , capital of the empire Babylonia . It was rebuilt after being destroyed by Assyria c .689 bc and its new buildings included the Hanging Gardens , one of the Seven Wonders of the World . This was the period, under Nebuchadnezzar , of the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews. Babylon declined after 275 bc as Seleucia...

Babylon

Babylon ([Hist.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
96 words

... [Hist.] An ancient city in Mesopotamia which lay on the Euphrates and was first settled around 3000 bc . Hammurabi made Babylon the capital of the Babylonian Empire and it became renowned for its grandeur and decadence. > A place or group that is considered to be materialistic, corrupt, and associated with the pursuit of sensual pleasure (adjective Babylonian ) One subset of the disaffected youth of '68, disillusioned with the reimposition of Gaullist order, simply fled the modern Babylon of Paris and set up communes in the hidden valleys of the...

Babylon

Babylon   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
467 words

... Ancient city and kingdom in southern * Mesopotamia . In the NT (1 Pet. 5: 13 and Rev. 18: 2 where ‘Babylon’ is an uncomplimentary reference to * Rome ) and in Christian spirituality (‘And Sion in her anguish with Babylon must cope’, from St Bernard 's hymn ‘Brief life is here our portion’) Babylon is synonymous with a state or place of exile, of longing for release, even therefore of a kind of hope. The * Exile of the Jews to Babylon after the capture of Jerusalem in 586 bce dominates the Bible (cf. Ps. 137: 1; Isa. 14: 4), as Babylon itself...

Babylon

Babylon   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
861 words

... Babylon was an ancient Mesopotamian city on the Hilla branch of the Euphrates River, southwest of modern Baghdad, located at the northern end of the alluvial plain near where the Tigris and Euphrates come most closely together, and a natural site from which Babylonia might be dominated. The triple walls of the city at its height enclosed 2,100 acres (850 hectares) of land. The ruins are described by Diodorus Siculus (2.9), Strabo (16.5), and Pliny (6.30). The city of Babylon is first attested in the written record under Sharkallisharri ( c.2217–c.2193...

Babylon

Babylon   Quick reference

A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
97 words

... The country between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, now Iraq, to which the Jews were exiled by Nebuchadnezzar after the destruction of the First Temple and by the rivers of which the exiles refused to sing ‘the Lord's song in a strange land’ (Psalms 137). Under the early third-century teachers Rav and Samuel , Babylon became a centre of Jewish learning, a keen rivalry existing between the Babylonian and Palestinian scholars. The Babylonian Talmud became more authoritative than the Palestinian under the influence of the Geonim , who looked upon...

Babylon

Babylon (Iraq, USA)   Quick reference

Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...a confusing medley of voices or a hubbub. Babylon was also the site of one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the fabled Hanging Gardens. One of Iraq’s governorates is named Bābil. 2. USA (New York): founded in 1872 and named after the ancient Babylon...

Babylon

Babylon   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
61 words

... An ancient city in Mesopotamia, first prominent under Hammurabi who made it capital of the kingdom of Babylonia . The city (now in ruins) lay on the Euphrates 88 km (55 miles) south of present‐day Baghdad and was noted for its luxury, its fortifications, and particularly for the ‘Hanging Gardens’, which were one of the Seven Wonders of the World....

Babylon

Babylon   Reference library

Amélie Kuhrt

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
510 words

...In the Parthian period, Babylon still had a city-governor and a gymnasium . Most of the thousands of cuneiform texts from Babylon have come from illicit excavations. Excavation R. Koldewey , Das wiedererstehende Babylon (1912; 5th edn. by B. Hrouda, 1990); Iraq 1983, 207. Ancient descriptions E. Unger , Babylon, die heilige Stadt (1931; 2nd edn. by R. Borger, 1970); A. George , Babylonian Topographical Texts (1992); and Antiquity 1993, 734–46; R. Rollinger , Herodots Babylonischer Logos (1993); J. Renger (Ed.), Babylon: Focus mesopotamischer...

Babylon

Babylon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...major power in southern Mesopotamia. Babylon's dominance faded again with the rise of Assyria. Babylon and Assyria remained rival forces until 609 bce when Assyria and its capital Nineveh fell to Babylon, which had long since come under Chaldean (Aramean) domination. Babylon itself fell to the Persians under Cyrus the Great in 538 bce , an event recorded in the prophecies of “Second Isaiah.” The city of Babylon continued to exist for hundreds of years thereafter, finally disappearing with the advent of Islam. Babylon first appears in the Bible as a city...

Babylon

Babylon   Reference library

James A. Armstrong

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
915 words

... Babylon lies 56 miles (90 km) south of Baghdad, on the outskirts of the city of Hilla. Though it was abandoned in the second century, the city’s location was never completely forgotten. Its ancient name was preserved as Babil , the name of one of the site’s several mounds. The Greek name Babylon represents the Akkadian bab ilani , or “gate of the gods.” Earlier, the city was called bab ilim , or “gate of the god,” a Semiticized rendering of an original non-Semitic (and non-Sumerian) name, the meaning of which is unknown. Babylon existed as a city...

Babylon

Babylon   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,315 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of Babylon. ” Sumer 35 (1979): 246–248. Klengel, Horst . “ Babylon zur Zeit der Perser, Griechen und Parther. ” Forschungen und Berichte 5 (1962): 40–53. Klengel, Horst . “Die östliche Neustadt Babylons in Texten altbabylonischer Zeit.” In Societies and Languages of the Ancient Near East: Studies in Honour of I. M. Diakonoff , pp. 169–173. Warminster, 1982. Klengel, Horst . König Hammurapi und der Alltag Babylons . Rev. ed. Zurich , 1991. Klengel-Brandt, Evelyn . Der Turm von Babylon . 2d rev. ed. Berlin, 1992. Kohlmeyer, Kay . Wiedererstehendes Babylon:...

Babylon

Babylon   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,057 words

... . Babylon is the rendering of Akkadian Babilum (Babilim), the city that for centuries served as capital of the “land of Babylon.” Cuneiform sources interpret its name as bāb-ilim , “gate of the deity.” The Bible rejected this popular etymology in favor of a more scurrilous one that linked the name to the confusion of tongues (Hebr. bālal , “[God] confused”), and so the city is called Babel. Not until around 1900 bce did an independent dynasty establish itself at Babylon. Like most of their contemporaries, its rulers bore Amorite (Northwest Semitic)...

Babylon

Babylon   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,157 words

... ( Map 2:H4 ). Babylon is the rendering of Akkadian Babilum (Babilim), the city that for centuries served as capital of the “land of Babylon” ( Jer. 50.28 ). Cuneiform sources interpret its name as bāb‐ilim , “gate of the deity.” The Bible rejected this popular etymology in favor of a more scurrilous one that linked the name to the confusion of tongues ( Gen. 11.9 , Hebr. bālal , “[God] confused”), and so the city is called Babel. Not until around 1900 BCE did an independent dynasty establish itself at Babylon. Like most of their contemporaries, its...

Babylon

Babylon   Reference library

Petra Sijpesteijn

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Located strategically on the eastern bank of the Nile in Egypt at the entrance to the Delta, Babylon had been an important town from the pharaonic period. Trajan (r. 98–117) built a citadel (Ar. Qasr al-Shama‘) there with direct water access and dug a canal bearing his name through the town, from the Nile to Clysma on the Red Sea. The town subsequently expanded towards Heliopolis (Ar. ‘Ayn Shams) in the north. From the 4th century, a bishop of Babylon is known and several churches were located inside the fortress. During the Arab conquest, the...

Babylon

Babylon   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
213 words

... The ruins of the city extend over several mounds in the vicinity of mod. Hillah ( c. 80 km. (50 mi.) south of Baghdad); the most important are Babil, Kasr, Merkes, Homera. Babylon became politically important under Hammurabi ( 1792–1750 bc ); but its time of greatest splendour was as capital of the Neo‐Babylonian empire ( 605–539 bc ). Most of its famous buildings date from this period. Babylon was an important centre for the Achaemenid and Seleucid rulers, who supported its cults (in which they sometimes participated personally) and continued to...

Babylon

Babylon   Reference library

Amanda H. PODANY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
3,103 words

... 1972 , 185 ). Classical authors also credited Babylon with one of the ancient wonders of the world: the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. An artist’s reconstruction of the fabled Hanging Gardens of Babylon, with its tree-lined terraces and the surrounding canal. From Wonders of the Past , Sir John Alexander Hammerton (Ed.), published c. 1923–1933 . Babylon is mentioned frequently in the Bible. The Tower of Babel was certainly thought to have been located there; Babylon was the place to which Nebuchadnezzar II (reigned 605–562 bce ) exiled the Jews...

Babylon, Iraq

Babylon, Iraq ([Si])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
288 words

...a structure that Koldeway identified as the famous Hanging Gardens ( see Seven Wonders of the Ancient World ). In 539 bc Babylon was overthrown by the Persians under Cyrus, after which it continued to exist only as a regional capital for successive occupants of the area. Alexander the Great died in the town in 323 bc . The site was abandoned after the Muslim conquest of the area in ad 641 . Rep.: J. Oates , 1986, Babylon . London: Thames &...

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