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Avignon

A city on the Rhône in SE France, which from 1309 until 1377 the residence of the popes during their exile from Rome and was papal property until the French Revolution.

Avignon

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
251 words
Illustration(s):
1

...papal territory after the crusades, Avignon remained a possession of the counts of Provence. In 1309 *Pope Clement V settled in Avignon because civil strife had made *Rome unsafe for him, and Avignon was on more neutral ground than could be found in France. In 1348 *Pope Clement VI purchased the city from Joanna of *Naples . Under papal patronage Avignon expanded into an important centre for late medieval art, learning, and culture as well as religious reform. The *papacy continued to reside in Avignon until 1378 , and two *antipopes ...

Avignon

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
37 words

... . From 1309 to 1377 Avignon was the residence (‘ Babylonian Captivity ’) of the Popes, though it did not become Papal property until 1348 , when Clement VI bought it from the Queen of...

Avignon

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
208 words

...of Sienese artists to work in Avignon, and the Papal Palace is decorated with frescoes in the Sienese style. After the departure of the papacy French painters such as Nicolas Froment and Enguerrand Quarton worked in the city. The finest product of Avignon art is the Pietà of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon ( c. 1460 , Louvre). H. Labande Les Palais des Papes et les monuments d'Avignon au XIVe siècle (2 vols., 1925); G. Mollat , The Popes at Avignon (English trans., 1963); B. Guillemain , La Cour pontificale d'Avignon, 1309– 1376 ...

Avignon

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
268 words

...of Avignon (‘Medieval Towns Series’, 1911). S. Gagnière and others, Histoire d'Avignon [1979]. G. Mollat , Les Papes d'Avignon, 1305–1378 (1912; Eng. tr., of 1949 edn., 1963; 10th edn. [1965]); Y. Renouard , La Papauté à Avignon (1954; Eng. tr., 1970); B. Guillemain , Les papes d'Avignon (1309–1376) (1998); id., La Cour Pontificale d'Avignon (1309–1327): Étude d'une société (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome, 201; 1962). Aux Origines de l'État Moderne. Le Fonctionnement administratif de la Papauté d'Avignon ...

Avignon

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
77 words

... City at the confluence of the Rhône and Durance rivers, Vaucluse department, Provence, se France. A thriving city under Roman rule, it was the seat of the Popes during their exile from Rome in the 14th century. There is a Papal Palace begun in 1316 and a Romanesque cathedral. The papacy held Avignon until 1791 , when it was annexed to France by the Revolutionary authorities. Industries: tourism. soap, wine, grain, leather. Pop. ( 1999 ) 88,312 (metropolitan,...

Avignon

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The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
921 words

...decorate his palace and the cathedral of Ste-Marie-des-Doms. While it is possible, though unlikely, that Giotto might have been in Avignon (one early record of him lists Avignon among places where he worked), Simone Martini, who had been in Avignon from c . 1340 /1 and died there in 1344 , was certainly the most considerable Italian artist who worked there. One of the panel pictures by Simone, known to have been painted in Avignon since it is dated 1342 (Liverpool, Walker Art Gall.), has the very unusual subject of the Christ Child returning to his parents...

Avignon

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,605 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Mollat : Les Papes d’Avignon, 1305–1378 (Paris, 1912, 9/1949) G. Colombe : Au Palais des Papes d’Avignon (Paris, 1921, 3/1939) L.-H. Labande : Le Palais des Papes et les monuments d’Avignon au XIVe siècle , 2 vols (Marseille, 1925) Y. Renouard : La Papauté à Avignon (Paris, 1954) B. Guillemain : La Cour pontificale d’Avignon, 1309–1376 (Paris, 1962) S. Gagnière : Le Palais des Papes d’Avignon (Avignon, 1983) A. Luttrell and T. Blagg : ‘The Papal Palace and Other Fourteenth-century Buildings at Sorgues near Avignon’, Archaeologia , cix...

Avignon

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

...II . Fresco by Matteo Giovanetti of Viterbo in St Martial's chapel at the Palace of the Popes, Avignon. 1344–1345. J. Girard , DHGE , 5, 1931, 1121-1142. J. Girard , Évocation du vieil Avignon , Paris, 1958. B. Guillemain , La Cour pontificale d'Avignon , Paris, 1962. G. Mollat , The Popes at Avignon 1305-1378 , London, 1963. Y. Renouard , The Avignon Papacy 1305-1403 , Hamden, 1970. Histoire d'Avignon , Aix-en-Provence, 1979, 17-312. D. Vingtain , Avignon. Le Palais des Papes , La Pierre-qui-vire, 1998. Anne-Marie Hayez Art A city of Roman origin,...

Avignon

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The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
103 words

... , adjoining the papal territory of Venaissin, became part of the county of Provence in the 13th c. In 1309 Pope Clement V took up residence there, and it was the centre of the administration of the Church until Gregory XI returned to Rome in 1376 . Dante represented this transfer of the papacy from Rome in apocalyptic terms ( Purg . 32.148–60), and Petrarch attacked it as the Church's exile in ‘Babylon’ ( Canz . 114, 137, 138). Ruled by anti-Popes during the Great Schism ( 1376–1423 ), it was then governed by papal legates until its...

Avignon

Avignon (Provence–Alpes–Côte d’Azur/France)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Avignon , Provence–Alpes–Côte d’Azur/France ( Avennio ) Lying on the River Rhône, the city takes its name from the Indo-European root word ab ‘water’. The present name is derived from the Roman name. Factionalism in Rome led Philip IV the Fair , King of France ( 1285–1314 ), to invite the pope, Clement V ( 1305–14 ), to set up his seat here in 1309 . Clement VI ( 1342–52 ) bought the city in 1348 and it remained papal property until annexed by France in 1791 . In the mean time, the Avignon papacy ended in 1377 . All seven popes who presided in...

Avignon

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Howard Sargeant

Dictionary Plus Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
65 words

...Avignon A city in south-eastern France, in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur. An important city since Roman times, it was the seat of the papacy for much of the fourteenth century and the Palace of the Popes remains a major tourist attraction. The city’s now-abandoned bridge over the river Rhône is celebrated in the folk song Sur le pont d’Avignon . Population ( 2011 ) 90,200. Howard...

Avignon popes

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... popes In 1309 Pope Clement V ( r.1305–14 ), a Gascon, under pressure from Philip the Fair of France, transferred the papal court to Avignon, where it remained until 1377 . This babylonian captivity weakened the papacy and led to the great schism . See also antipope . Other Avignon popes were: John XXII 1316–34 Benedict XII 1334–42 Clement VI 1342–52 Innocent VI 1352–62 Urban V 1362–70 Gregory XI...

Avignon Festival

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The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
186 words

... Festival , founded in July 1947 by Jean Vilar with the first production in French of Shakespeare's Richard II in which Vilar himself played the title-role. Productions were presented in the inner court of the papal palace, whose floodlit façade provided an imposing setting. The new festival began modestly, but when in 1951 Vilar was appointed head of the Théâtre National Populaire he was able to use its resources, including its admirable company, and in the 1950s Avignon sprang into prominence with memorable performances by Gérard Philipe in...

Avignon Papacy

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The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
215 words

... Papacy . This is the period between 1309 and the early 15th c. when the popes lived at Avignon, an enclave in the Comtat Venaissin ceded to the papacy in 1229 after the Albigensian Crusades [ see Cathars ]. Before the outbreak of the Great Schism in 1378 it was at Avignon that the medieval papacy's efforts to centralize the government of the Church reached their apogee. To house the papal household and administration (dominated by successive French popes and a majority of French cardinals) the enormous surviving palace was built in opulent style....

Avignon Festival

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The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
115 words

... Festival Founded by Jean Vilar in 1947 , as part of the decentralizing of French theatre. Vilar, director of the Théâtre National Populaire ( 1951–63 ), continued to develop the Festival until his death in 1971 . It runs when French theatres are closed for the month of July – originally it was a week – and is a major showcase and inspiration for French and international theatre, encouraging experimental use of unorthodox spaces. Major directors or companies to appear include the Living Theater , with Paradise Now ( 1968 ), Robert Wilson , with ...

Avignon Festival

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The Companion to Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
315 words

... Festival Theatre festival created by *Vilar in 1947 in the ancient city of Avignon in Provence. Vilar intended to liberate theatre from the urban elite. The initial festival lasted one week and consisted of three productions, including the first staging in France of Shakespeare 's Richard II , performed outside in the courtyard of the fourteenth-century papal palace. For many years the festival was closely associated with the *Théâtre National Populaire ( TNP ), which Vilar directed from 1951 until 1963 . Some of the most notable productions of...

Avignon Festival

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C. Henrik Borgstrom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
408 words

... Festival Annual theatre festival created by Jean Vilar in 1947 in the ancient walled city of Avignon in southern France. From its inception, the festival was meant to liberate and popularize a genre which, in Vilar's view, had been relegated to the urban elite. The initial festival lasted one week and consisted of three productions, including the first staging in France of Shakespeare's Richard II , performed outside in the courtyard of the fourteenth-century papal palace. For many years the festival was closely associated with the Théâtre...

Avignon, School of

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The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
155 words

..., School of . Tradition of painting associated with the city of Avignon in southern France, originating during the period when the papal court was transferred there because of anarchic conditions in Rome ( 1309–77 ). The presence of this great source of patronage drew many artists to the city, including illustrious Italian masters, among them Simone Martini and possibly Giotto . The centre of artistic activities was the Palace of the Popes, begun in the 1330s, which has several frescos dating from around 1350 . After the departure of the popes, Avignon...

Avignon, School of

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The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
157 words

..., School of Tradition of painting associated with the city of Avignon in southern France, originating during the period when the papal court was transferred there because of anarchic conditions in Rome ( 1309–77 ). The presence of this great source of patronage drew many artists to the city, including illustrious Italian masters, among them Simone Martini and possibly Giotto . The centre of artistic activities was the Palace of the Popes, begun in the 1330s, which has several frescos dating from around 1350 . After the departure of the popes, Avignon...

Villeneuve-lès-Avignon

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Villeneuve-lès-Avignon French town in the Vaucluse département, situated in the hills of Avignon near the River Rhône. Successive generations of French kings planned to develop the city of Avignon as a military stronghold. In 1293 Philip IV cleared the site for a ‘ville neuve’ (new town) on the west bank of the river near the Pont St Bénézet, which connected it to Avignon on the east bank. He also constructed the Tour Philippe le Bel ( 1293–1307 ; altered c. 1360 ). In the second half of the 14th century John II and Charles V constructed the...

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