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Art and Images

The European Court of Human Rights has declared that “those who create, perform, distribute or exhibit works of art contribute to the exchange of ideas and opinions which is essential ... ...

Art and Images

Art and Images   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,916 words

... and Images The European Court of Human Rights has declared that “those who create, perform, distribute or exhibit works of art contribute to the exchange of ideas and opinions which is essential for a democratic society” (Chinkin, p. 14). Artists may create beauty, celebrate life, and help us see our world and humanity in different ways. But artists and their images are also intimately and profoundly linked to issues of human rights and the visualization of human wrongs. Art can be a testament and a memorial to human suffering. The work of creative artists...

Art and Images

Art and Images  

The European Court of Human Rights has declared that “those who create, perform, distribute or exhibit works of art contribute to the exchange of ideas and opinions which is essential ...
Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of Art in 1838 embraces many changes in the nature, scale, and composition of art and its audiences. The emergence of new paradigms of *patronage , new institutions to encourage the production and dissemination of work, and changes in the perception of private collections and galleries mark Britain's tentative steps towards a fresh formulation of the public sphere. This essay will address two broad aspects of the cultural politics of British art in the era: changing notions of the place and professionalism of art, and changing notions of the social and...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to fit into the ideal of a public art sketched out in the Discourses , and bump into people who dramatically fail to conform to Reynolds's notion of the proper public for that art. Swarming around the history paintings and the grand portrait of a Prince are pictures of beggars, flowers, waterfalls, witches, landscapes, birds, dogs, and horses. Modestly sized portraits of eminently unheroic people—women in fancy hats, humble prelates, and country gentry—jostle at the edges of Opie's and Northcote's history paintings, and hover beneath Reynolds's huge canvas....

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,019 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Eileen Gardiner and Ronald G. Musto 1 Definition 2 History 3 Scale and commercialization 4 Characteristics 5 Reading practices and authorship 6 Coding: approaches and functions 7 Models and aesthetics 8 State of the art: three visions 9 Conclusion 1 Definition An electronic book (also e-book, ebook, digital book) is a text- and image-based publication in digital form produced on, published by, and readable on computers or other digital devices. E-books are presented visually or aurally, with the *audio book as a precursor to, and limited exemplum...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...paper, ideally one that was coated with china clay, and known as ‘art paper’. Similar techniques were employed to treat photographs to produce a printing surface for lithographic or intaglio printing. The latter process led to the development of *photogravure , printed either from flat etched plates or from copper cylinders from which both photograph and text could be printed on large web-fed rotary presses. The process of photogravure printed on rotary machines, which at that date produced a denser image than either letterpress or offset lithography, enabled...

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...and wood-engraved vignettes. His more celebrated Book of Nonsense ( 1846 ) used lithography both for text and image. Lithographic colour printing, or *chromolithography , provided Owen *Jones , an architect and ornamental designer, with a suitable medium for his work: perhaps his greatest achievement using it is The Grammar of Ornament ( 1856 ). His ideas proved influential on the design of wallpapers, carpets, and furnishings, and his approach to book illustration culminated in the work of William *Morris . 6 The age of wood engraving and mass...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...had led to a new understanding of the antique [ see *Hellenism ]. The influential writings of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann ( 1717–68 ) advocated a return to the noble simplicity and calm grandeur of Greek art. The classical tradition represented universal and timeless values of truth, purity, and honesty, freed from the intervention of the Renaissance and the artificial fripperies and degenerate deceits of the Rococo. The international movement which advanced its cause was later dubbed (pejoratively) *‘neoclassicism’ , but at the...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...multiple images was by making a design on a copper plate, stone, or woodblock, applying ink to it, and then pressing the inked design onto a sheet of paper to form a print. Hence from the end of the fifteenth to the mid-nineteenth century, prints in a certain sense controlled the ways in which the world was made visible to all but the few who had access to *paintings [27] and drawings, or to ceremonial forms of representation. Prints provided an almost limitless range of services, from the reproduction and multiplication of works of art to the...

15 Children’s Books

15 Children’s Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,997 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...eye to observe and analyse, by stimulating the imagination, by encouraging the assimilation of information, and by teaching children how to interpret images in different formats and styles. For example, grids filled with small illustrations are traditionally associated with the teaching of vocabulary and grammar. The pictorial language of isotypes (pictographic images), such as those by Gerd Arntz in Die bunte Welt ( 1929 ), helps children to visualize enormous quantities of specific things. Numbered tableaux depict animals, things, people, and activities on...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... A Guide to British Topographical Collections in 1974 , and John Harris , in The Artist and the Country House ( 1979 ), embraced the world of fine art with his copiously illustrated history of country house and garden view painting in the period between 1540 and 1870 . A complementary volume on The Artist and the Garden was published by Roy Strong in 2000 . Engraved views of individual country seats in their landscaped settings were popular from the late 17th century onwards, and these were often published in book form. Among the most...

Literary Theory

Literary Theory   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,935 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...however, implies that both naïve (the phantom is real) and sceptical (it is a mere projection from the spectator) explanations of the Spectre are misleading. Instead, it is both subjective and objective: it is a figure cast by the spectator, but this image is itself projected onto the mist by the sun. In other words, the mind's productive power (the imagination) is congruent with and enabled by a creative power residing in Nature. The mind's creations—whether the universe of perception or the world of art—carry a trace (‘a glory’) of this transcendent creative...

The Winter’s Tale

The Winter’s Tale   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,428 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...than Cymbeline , though less than the perennially popular and controversial The Tempest : in recent criticism The Winter’s Tale has figured importantly in discussions of Shakespeare’s handling of genre, his thinking about art and artifice, his depictions of marriage and the family, and his understanding (and manipulation) of wonder. Stage history: When Simon Forman saw the play at the Globe in May 1611 he was struck by its plot (if not by the statue scene, which he does not mention) and especially by Autolycus (‘the rogue that came in all tattered...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...(what was performed?), participation and reception (who played and listened, where and when?). Information about magnitude and representativeness (how many, how often, how typical?) is unavailable or unconsidered. Attempts to pin images of modernity to the economic and social context of music over this period probably anticipate events by at least half a century. Where relevant research has been undertaken, on the economic history of the piano industry, for example, it emerges that production, ownership, and use of the piano only became widespread in...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,985 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...less prestige because it was a manual art or craft, and involved the shedding of blood. The apothecary's trade was least dignified, because it was seen as shopkeeping. This image of a hierarchical, closed profession has been undermined by recent research. Medical historians now suggest that the practice of medicine was far more widespread, fluid, and heterogeneous than traditionally assumed. On the whole, medical regulation was breaking down in Georgian England. Strict distinctions between physicians and surgeons and apothecaries were being challenged or...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... wrote: ‘As for churches themselves, belles and times of morning and evening prayer remain as in time past, saving that all images, shrines, tabernacles, rood loftes and monuments of idolatrie are removed, taken down and defaced: Onlie the stories in glasse windowes excepted, which, for want of sufficient store of new stuffe, and by reason of extreme charge that should grow by the alteration of the same into white panes throughout the realme, are not altogether abolished in most places at once, but by little and little suffered to decaie that white glass may...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...with its images of empire and of race. Stage history: Although early allusions allow us to infer that the play was performed in 1606–7 , no records exist of any further performances before 1759 , when David Garrick and Edward Capell prepared it for the proscenium stage by a great deal of transposition and cutting. Despite Garrick’s efforts as Antony, and heavy expenditure on sets and costumes, this achieved only four performances: contemporaries preferred Dryden’s All for Love . The next two attempts to revive the play (by Kemble in 1813 , and ...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...image better illustrates the complexities of the period than the remarkable water-colour of the Bank of England rendered for Soane by Joseph *Gandy and exhibited publicly at the Royal Academy in 1830 . In this sweeping picture, Soane and Gandy attempted to reconcile the contradictions of the time: to represent the Bank as both picturesquely in ruins and professionally under construction; to equate modern invention with the venerated ruins of antiquity; to be both British and classical; to gift London with the Roman grandeur it seemed so sadly to lack; and,...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,432 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...books. Wordsworth's is an art of innuendo and suggestion where ‘invisible worlds’ come and go in momentary flashes of revelation. (The argument is that those moments, those ‘spots of time’, will never lose their healing power, no matter how dark the time grows.) Blake's, by contrast, is an art of inflection and high rhetorical declaratives. Hence he insists on ‘minute particulars’ in the passage from Milton : not merely a catalogue of named flowers, but the names of all orders of being (Og and Anak, Ololon and Beulah) and the precise articulation of the...

Theatre

Theatre   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,088 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...period meant the marginalization of theatre and drama. Even theatre historians felt compelled to apologize for the fact that there was no Romantic equivalent of *Shakespeare , no drama of enduring literary merit to stand with the poetic achievements of * Wordsworth and * Coleridge . This is in spite of the fact that the age was preoccupied to the point of obsession with the theatre as an institution and with the theatricality of social, political, and personal behaviour. The discourse, practices, and images of the theatre pervaded all aspects of the...

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