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Army Alpha and Beta tests

The first group tests of intelligence, providing the prototypes of many that were to follow, intended to improve selection, placement, and training for specific occupations within the US ...

Army Alpha and Beta tests

Army Alpha and Beta tests n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... entitled Psychology Examining in the United States Army , and in 1919 Yerkes published a version of the tests called the National Intelligence Test , which was widely used by schools, universities, and commercial companies. The Army Alpha test included the earliest examples of analogies tests , number-completion tests , synonym tests , and antonym tests , and the Army Beta test, designed specifically for people who were illiterate, introduced the first incomplete-pictures test and coding test , all the subtests being strictly...

Army Alpha and Beta tests

Army Alpha and Beta tests  

The first group tests of intelligence, providing the prototypes of many that were to follow, intended to improve selection, placement, and training for specific occupations within the US army during ...
National Intelligence Test

National Intelligence Test  

A civilian version of the Army Alpha and Beta tests, published in 1919 by the US psychologist Robert Mearns Yerkes (1876–1956), and widely used in schools, universities, and commercial firms.
group test

group test  

A test of intelligence, personality, or any other psychological attribute that is presented in multiple-choice format and can be administered to groups of respondents simultaneously. The first widely ...
National Intelligence Test

National Intelligence Test n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Intelligence Test n . A civilian version of the Army Alpha and Beta tests , published in 1919 by the US psychologist Robert Mearns Yerkes ( 1876–1956 ), and widely used in schools, universities, and commercial...

group test

group test n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...test n . A test of intelligence , personality , or any other psychological attribute that is presented in multiple-choice format and can be administered to groups of respondents simultaneously. The first widely used group tests were the Army Alpha and Beta Tests . Compare individual test...

Psychological and Intelligence Testing

Psychological and Intelligence Testing   Reference library

Michael M. Sokal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...produced two tests. The Army Alpha examination, designed for English-literate men, involved solving arithmetical problems, identifying synonyms and antonyms, determining whether disarranged sentences were true or false, and completing analogies and number series. The nonverbal Army Beta examination, designed for illiterate men and those literate in other languages, involved following mazes, counting cubes in complicated structures, deciphering codes, and completing pictures and symbol series. Unlike most earlier tests, the Army exams tested its subjects in...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
8,954 words

...in the winter months. Thus Rigel, Capella, Canopus, and Sirius, being best seen from December to February , are chosen as one set in various horizons. Arcturus, Spica, Corvus, Alpha Centauri, Beta Centauri, and Acrux constitute another set, best seen from February to May . Sravan (Al Tair) is used to indicate the east–west rhumb, as an alternative to Ardra (Betelgeuse). The Indian compass rose therefore uses stars whose azimuths are close enough to the true bearings to be recognized, and stars that are available as alternatives for different seasons....

Disease

Disease   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
9,315 words
Illustration(s):
1

...far more than the mutation rate. In these cases, it appears likely that the selection coefficients have not always been what they are today, and strong founder effects may also result in large changes in frequency. Now let us examine the details of a few particular single-gene disorders. Sickle-cell anemia. The predominant adult form of hemoglobin has an oxygen-binding heme ring with two alpha subunits and two beta subunits. In 1957 V. Ingram found that the sickle or S -allele form of β globin has a different structure from the normal, or A, form. We...

Estonia

Estonia   Reference library

Elina Haavio-Mannila, Kai Haldre, and Osmo Kontula

Contiuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
25,080 words
Illustration(s):
1

...0.78 (alpha). In Estonia, according to MCA, men, the younger, and the more-educated people had a higher sexual self-esteem than women, older people, and the less-educated people. Cohabiting and separately living (LAT) persons reported more self-esteem than married and single people. When we compared the three areas in which sexual self-esteem was studied, we found that men in Estonia and St. Petersburg had about as high sexual self-esteem as people in Finland in the 1990s. Women in Estonia had a lower sexual self-esteem than women in Finland in 1999 and in St....

The History of Personnel and Vocational Testing

The History of Personnel and Vocational Testing   Reference library

Michael J. Zickar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
6,299 words

...The new entrance exam, Army Alpha, was influenced by those previous tests but had its own need content and needed to be administered to a large number of people at one time as well as easily scored. Army Alpha measured arithmetic reasoning, practical judgment, and language ability. Early on, army officials realized that new immigrants proved to be loyal and dedicated soldiers, though they did not perform as strongly on Army Alpha because of its reliance on the English language. Army Beta was developed to be language-free and relied on pictorial-based...

Biographies of a Scientific Subject: The Intelligence Test

Biographies of a Scientific Subject: The Intelligence Test   Reference library

Annette Mülberger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
11,634 words

...testing situation regarding what to say and how the tester and the tested should behave. During World War I, the intelligence test was being prepared for a more efficient, collective assessment. This happened in 1917 . With the assistance of Robert Yerkes ( 1876–1956 ), Terman, and Goddard, the test gave rise to twins: the Army Alpha and the Army Beta tests. The tests were multiple-choice paper-and-pencil tests 7 and they were not identical. The first used English, while the second was based on pictures meant for non-English speakers. 8 The two tests...

High-Stakes Testing, Standardization, and Inequality in the United States

High-Stakes Testing, Standardization, and Inequality in the United States   Reference library

Wayne Au

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
6,887 words

...humans and human ability ( Au, 2009b ; Gould, 1996 ). In 1917 , as a psychologist and army colonel in charge of the mental testing of 1.75 million recruits during World War I, Yerkes worked with Goddard, Terman, and others to develop the Alpha and Beta army tests to sort incoming soldiers and to determine their “mental fitness.” Yerkes drew several dubious conclusions using this incredibly large pool of data, including that the intelligence of European immigrants could be judged according to their country of origin: The darker peoples of eastern and...

Conceptions of Giftedness and Gifted Students

Conceptions of Giftedness and Gifted Students   Reference library

Tracy L. Cross and Jennifer Riedl Cross

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
7,501 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the expected average. As contemporaries, Terman and Hollingworth impacted an IQ conception of giftedness that is still one of the most widely accepted views of giftedness in the early 21st century ( Sternberg, 2018 ). The outbreak of World War I (WWI) accelerated the acceptance and use of IQ notions of giftedness. WWI created the need to identify and train tens of thousands of soldiers to serve in the new U.S. armed forces. Inspired by the Stanford–Binet test, the army developed its own alpha and beta tests ( c . 1917 ) that were used to assess potential...

The History of the Concept Adult and Research Regarding Adult Development

The History of the Concept Adult and Research Regarding Adult Development   Reference library

Carol Hoare

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
8,276 words

...War Department underwrote the development of intelligence tests for World War I recruits. These were known as the Alpha and Beta tests for, respectively, literate and preliterate inductees ( Sokal, 1987 ). Unfortunately, due to difficulties inherent in the army’s use of cross-sectional studies alone, cohort differences were not considered. Cross-sectional findings were interpreted as though they demonstrated intraindividual longitudinal changes, whereas correct assessment necessitates testing individuals over time (see, e.g., Salthouse, 2018 ). This...

Schools as Reform Incubators

Schools as Reform Incubators   Reference library

William T. Pink

The Oxford Encyclopedia of School Reform

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
14,934 words

...waned and the focus shifted to a concern over greater accountability in schools for student achievement, a new reform, standardized testing, emerged. Standardized Tests and School Accountability Standardized testing has its origin in the United States with the development of tests by the military to place men in a variety of roles. The best known of these were the Alpha and Beta tests in the U.S. army; it is interesting to note that even these early tests differentiated between working- and middle-class men ( Gould, 1982 ). In 1959 , a standardized test named...

History of Social Psychology at Mid-20th Century

History of Social Psychology at Mid-20th Century   Reference library

Thomas F. Pettigrew

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
11,992 words

...genetic inferiority, these results also raised serious questions about the presumed ability of psychology’s tests to provide a stable indicator of an individual’s intelligence. Since the discipline had acquired its first status in America with its famous alpha and beta “intelligence” tests in World War I, this challenge to testing constituted “concealed dynamite”—as one reviewer of Klineberg’s work described it ( Klineberg, 1974 , p. 168). And, for good measure, the determined young assistant professor published another, more general volume on the topic,...

Bulgaria and the European Union

Bulgaria and the European Union   Reference library

Dimitar Bechev

The Oxford Encyclopedia of European Union Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
13,232 words

...balancing act between East and West impossible. In EU deliberations, Bulgaria follows closely the position of Germany, but externally its leaders (with some notable exceptions like President Rossen Plevneliev) have avoided confrontation with Russia ( Bechev, 2017 , chapter 3). As elsewhere in the region (e.g., Greece), public opinion favors both cooperation with Russia (which is second highest source of imports, on account of its near monopoly over gas and crude oil deliveries) and continued membership in the EU and NATO ( Alpha Research, 2015 ). That is in...

Europe

Europe: c. 800,000 years ago - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...century Arts Painting British painting British art Great Britain - from 1707 United Kingdom - from 1801 British Isles Britain 1911 1911 Charles Wilson, using his cloud chamber to detect the passage of charged particles, obtains his first photographs of alpha and beta rays Wilson, Charles Thomson Rees (1869–1959) A Dictionary of Scientists 1 1910s 20th century Science Physics Great Britain - from 1707 United Kingdom - from 1801 British Isles Britain 1911 1911 Ernest Rutherford proposes the concept of the nucleus as a positively charged mass at the centre of an...

Britain

Britain: c. 800,000 years ago - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Arts Painting British painting British art Great Britain - from 1707 United Kingdom - from 1801 British Isles Europe 1911 1911 Charles Wilson, using his cloud chamber to detect the passage of charged particles, obtains his first photographs of alpha and beta rays Wilson, Charles Thomson Rees (1869–1959) A Dictionary of Scientists 1 1910s 20th century Science Physics Great Britain - from 1707 United Kingdom - from 1801 British Isles Europe 1911 1911 Ernest Rutherford proposes the concept of the nucleus as a positively charged mass at the centre of an atom...

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