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Armenian genocide

(1915–16) At the height of World War I, the Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire suspected its Armenian population of harbouring sympathy for the Russian enemy. Armenians ...

Armenian genocide

Armenian genocide (1915–16)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
271 words

...Armenian genocide ( 1915–16 ) At the height of World War I, the Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire suspected its Armenian population of harbouring sympathy for the Russian enemy. Armenians serving in the Ottoman army were taken into camps and killed, as were Armenian political leaders and intellectuals. The mass of the population were rounded up and marched off to concentration camps, where many of them died of hunger, thirst or disease. In 1920–3 , when the Ottoman Empire invaded parts of Armenia, Armenians were subject to further mass...

Armenian genocide

Armenian genocide  

(1915–16)At the height of World War I, the Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire suspected its Armenian population of harbouring sympathy for the Russian enemy. Armenians serving in the Ottoman ...
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire  

The Armenians emerged as a distinct culture in the sixth century bce and inhabited an area that in the early twenty-first century included the Republic of Armenia, most of eastern ...
Armenia

Armenia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A region south of the Caucasus in Asia Minor, comprising the Republic of Armenia (see Armenia, Republic of) but also parts of eastern Turkey and northern Iran. Armenian culture dates from the 6th ...
Turkey

Turkey  

Tension between Islamists and secularists threatens democracy and EU accessionTurkey is predominantly mountainous. The lowlands are mostly confined to coastal areas around the Black Sea, the Aegean, ...
Armenia

Armenia (Colombia)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...was later called by the Armenians ‘The Genocide’ (the Turks consistently claim that this was simply a case of relocation and that there was no intention to cause loss of life). Having captured Turkish Armenia in 1916 , the Russians were compelled to surrender it and part of Russian Armenia to Turkey in 1918 in the wake of the Bolshevik Revolution. A substantial Kurdish population now inhabits the area. The First World War over, Armenia enjoyed a period of independence from May 1918 to December 1920 . In June 1918 , however, Armenia was forced to...

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,952 words

...The first major narrative of the Armenian genocide in English, originally published in 1918. Power, Samantha . A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide . New York: Basic Books, 2002. Power uses the Armenian genocide to contextualize the pioneering work of Raphael Lemkin and his creation of the concept of genocide; Lemkin first used the term “genocide” to describe the Armenian atrocities on a CBS News broadcast in 1949, footage of which can be found in Andrew Goldberg's PBS documentary The Armenian Genocide (2005). Ramsaur, Ernest Edmondson ....

Armenia

Armenia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
531 words

...Armenian population—nearly 2 million people—to Syria and Mesopotamia. Deportations continued until 1918 ; it has been estimated that as many as 1.5 million Armenians died or were killed en route, in what became known as the Armenian genocide . As a result of continuing persecution, Armenians emigrated throughout the world and today form significant communities in Russia (∼200,000), the United States (∼1,000,000), France (∼400,000), Georgia (∼350,000), Iran (∼200,000), Lebanon (∼190,000), Latin America (∼180,000), and elsewhere. In May 1918 Armenians...

Armenia

Armenia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,368 words

...Armenians under Turkish rule perished in what many observers deemed as genocide. More than 1.5 million western Armenians were exterminated in western Armenia and other parts of the Ottoman Empire ( 1915–1920 ) under the cover of World War I. Their property was plundered. The survivors became dispersed all over the world (the Armenian diaspora- spyurk ). The first Republic of Armenia ( 1918–1920 ) suffered a difficult time, sheltering thousands of refugees while enduring epidemics and Turkish invasions. Under Soviet rule (from December 1920 ), Armenia's...

Armenian

Armenian   Reference library

Aren Seferian

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... Genocide, which “cleansed” modern-day Turkey of its Christian minorities. Some 1.5 million Armenians were killed or died of starvation to the extent that the phrase “Eat your food—think of the starving Armenians” became common in American households. Armenians settled on the east side of Manhattan between Twenty-Third and Thirty-Fourth Streets in Murray Hill in a neighborhood that became known as “Little Armenia.” Several family-run Armenian restaurants began opening, introducing New Yorkers for the first time to foods that were common to the Armenian diet,...

Armenia

Armenia   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,269 words

...its Armenian population, and they suppressed Armenian language and culture in Nagorno-Karabagh, a process which the Armenians called cultural genocide. With the advent of Mikhail Gorbachev and perestroika in the 1980s, however, the Armenians of Nagorno-Karabagh demanded complete autonomy; when the Soviet Union imploded in 1991 , they voted for independence and union with Armenia. Armenians were massacred in Azerbaijani cities in 1988 and 1990 , and a war broke out in 1992 after the fall of the USSR. Over a half million Armenian refugees fled to Armenia or...

Genocide and War

Genocide and War   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,180 words

...reasons, the Turks were able to exploit the war situation in order to achieve their genocidal aims. The result was a loss of life, in a very short time, of unprecedented proportions. The Turks’ actions against the Armenians were replicated against other Christian minorities in the Ottoman Empire, specifically, the Pontic Greeks (353,000 killed) and the Assyrians (275,000 killed). The Armenian massacres, the genocide of the Herero, and even the Armenian-Pontic-Assyrian genocide of 1915 all took place before the publicization of those of the major slaughters of...

Ekizian, Michelle

Ekizian, Michelle (21 Nov 1956)   Reference library

Şahan Arzruni and Melissa J. De Graaf

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
280 words

...her works reflect her Armenian heritage, including the multimedia project The Place of Beginnings: Songs of Peace ( 2005 ), based on Franz Werfel's novel of the Armenian genocide, The Forty Days of Musa Dagh ; and an opera on the life of Arshile Gorky, a child witness of the Armenian genocide. Bibliography R. Hershenson : “Year in Rome Turns Composer's Requiem into a Celebration,” New York Times [Westchester edn] (1 Oct 1989) C. Atamian : “Composer Michelle Ekizian Teaches the Genocide Using Music, Words, and Images,” The Armenian Reporter (19 July...

genocide

genocide   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
134 words

... The attempt to destroy a population on the basis of racial, religious, ethnic, ideological, or cultural criteria. First used by the U.S. jurist Raphael Lemkin in 1944 , the concept was central to the prosecution of Nazi leaders during the Nuremberg trials that followed World War II. It was later incorporated into a United Nations resolution ( 1946 ) and convention ( 1948 ) that made genocide a crime under international law . The term has been applied to a variety of instances of systematic massacre, including the ancient practice of murdering entire...

Guy, Georges

Guy, Georges (1918)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of Asian Artists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Designs for tapestries. Georges Guy began his studies at the Lebanese academy of fine art in 1944 , and in 1967 he taught painting there and also in the Armenian College in Beirut. In 1980–1981 he was dean of the faculty of Fine Arts in the Academy. In 1963 he was awarded the Sursock Museum's Tapestry prize, in 1965 the prize in the exhibition Fiftieth Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide , in 1968 the Sursock Museum's second prize and in 1972 a gold medal in Rome. He exhibited regularly from 1965 onwards at the autumn Salon of the Sursock...

Armenia

Armenia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
736 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Armenia A Caucasian republic which finally gained its independence on 20 October 1991 , just before the formal disintegration of the Soviet Union. Foreign rule (to 1991) At the beginning of the twentieth century, Armenia was occupied by Turkey and Russia. Its population declined in the first genocidal massacres of the twentieth century, carried out by Turks and Kurds ( 1895–7 , 1909 , 1915–17 ). In 1915–17 , over 500,000 Armenians are estimated to have died as Ottoman Turks resettled over 1.5 million Armenians in Syria and Mesopotamia. A Republic of...

genocide

genocide   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
651 words

...the crime of genocide can all too easily occur. ‘Ethnic cleansing’ in the former Yugoslavia had a number of disturbing features, not least the prominence of physicians among the Bosnian Serb leadership. Large-scale massacres do not necessarily require medical expertise: the Turkish killing of the Armenians during World War I or the tragic massacres in Rwanda in 1995 show that all that might be necessary for such measures is to set in motion death marches — when persons would die from exhaustion — or to wield a simple machete. Genocide seems likely to...

Genocide

Genocide   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
5,847 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Female Bodies the Battlefield,” p. 181). Genocide in the twentieth century included but was not limited to the Armenian genocide in the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) during World War I, the Jewish Holocaust in Europe during World War II, Cambodia in 1975–1979 , and Rwanda in 1994 . The Armenian Genocide, 1915–1923. The Christian Armenians in the Ottoman Empire had for centuries been subject to official discriminatory policies, various forms of oppression, and physical attacks by Muslim Turks and Kurds. The Armenians inhabited their historic homeland for more...

Caucasus

Caucasus   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
552 words

...strengthened, and upon gaining independence during the early 1990s, Armenia occupied Nagorno-Karabakh, expelling more than a million Azeris. Azerbaijan, which has no trade relations with Armenia, ships its oil by pipeline through Georgia and Turkey. Armenia still has no formal diplomatic relations with Turkey and refuses to renounce claims to eastern Turkey, while the Turks refuse to apologize for or recognize as genocide the killing and expulsion of more than a million Armenians that happened during the mid-1890s and World War I under the Ottomans....

Kherdian, David

Kherdian, David   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
326 words

...nonfiction. Kherdian's upbringing, which he describes as “a real Huckleberry Finn childhood,” and his Armenian heritage provide the inspiration for most of his writing, be it poetry, fiction, or biography. Kherdian's Newbery Honor winner, The Road from Home: The Story of an Armenian Girl ( 1979 ), is typical in this respect; at once Armenian and (auto)biographical, it is the compelling story of Kherdian's mother and how she survived the Armenian genocide. After working as a shoe salesman and bartender and in the military, Kherdian was inspired to write and...

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