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Armenia

[To survey traditional and theatrical dance in Armenia, this entry comprises two articles: the first article discusses the history of traditional dance; the second explores the development ...

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World Flags

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

......

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World Maps

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Armenia Physical map Political map...

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Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...and Iran. The Armenian name means the ‘Land of Hayk’, Noah’s great-great-grandson from whom the Armenians claim descent. The Armenians call themselves the Hayk. The ancient Greeks used the term ‘Armenian’ which, according to legend, was derived from the Armen tribe who took their name from Armenios; he was, in Greek legend, one of the Argonauts who accompanied Jason in his search for the Golden Fleece. Armenia, however, may be a modification of Aramaean, a tribe which lived in northern Syria. The biblical name for Armenia was Ararat. Armenia (Armina in old...

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Eduard Danielyan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,383 words

...developed political and economic system of Armenia (Ararat, or Urartu Kingdom, from the ninth to seventh centuries bce). In the sixth century bce, the Armenian Kingdom's wealth amounted to about 3,000 talents. From 519 to 331 bce , the administrative system of Achaemenid Persia also included western Armenia. The independent eastern Armenian kings and the governors of western Armenia struck their own coins. Armenia was rich in food and horses. The Royal Road (from Susa in Elam to Sardeis in Lydia) traversed Armenia, which permitted trade with Mesopotamian...

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The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
531 words

...and Russian rule. Armenian nationalists formed parties and secret societies to press for Ottoman reforms. Three major parties were formed during this period: the Armenakan, the social democratic party Hnchakian, and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutiun). All such reform efforts were forcibly repressed, with large-scale massacres of Armenians taking place in Ottoman Armenia in 1895–1896 . During World War I, the Istanbul government regarded its Armenian population as unreliable and potentially subversive, despite Armenian declarations of...

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Sergio La Porta

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of decline. Roman influence in Armenia likewise deteriorated after the death of Valens in 378. After the Partition of Armenia The great powers divided Armenia between them in 387. At the Partition of Armenia by the Treaty of Ekeleats‘ between Theodosius I and Shapur III in 387, the Persians secured approximately four-fifths of Armenian territory. The Arshakuni King of the Roman part of Armenia, Arshak III, died in 390 and was not replaced. The Arshakuni continued to rule in Persarmenia until 428 when the Armenian dynasts ( nakharars / naxarars )...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
288 words

... A region south of the Caucasus in Asia Minor, comprising the Republic of Armenia ( see armenia, republic of ) but also parts of eastern Turkey and northern Iran. Armenian culture dates from the 6th century bc , when people who referred to themselves as the Hay and were descended from the ancient Phrygians founded a civilization on the ruins of the ancient kingdom of Urartu. After successive annexation over 500 years by the Persians, Macedonians (Alexander the Great), and Romans, the kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes II (95–55 bc...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
792 words
Illustration(s):
4

...the Armenians generally prospered under Turkish rule. E Armenia was the battleground between the rival Ottoman and Persian Empires. In 1828 Russia acquired Persian Armenia, and - drawn by promises of religious tolerance - many Armenians moved into the Russian-controlled area. In Turkish Armenia, British promises of protection encouraged nationalist movements. The Turkish response was uncompromising, killing c. 200,000 Armenians in 1896 alone. In the Russian sector, a process of Russification was enforced. During World War 1, Armenia was the...

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Nina G. Garsoïan

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,244 words

...this period (see Armenian Art and Architecture ; Armenian Literature ) . Armenia likewise prospered through extensive international trade until Byz. expansion destroyed the external equilibrium once again. Byz. expansion into Armenia began in the second half of the 10th C., and Tarōn became an imperial province in 966/7 , but in 974 Emp. John I Tzimiskes was still collaborating with King Ašot III . Byz. annexation of Armenia accelerated in the next century. In successive campaigns, Basil II gained much of western Armenia, which became the theme...

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,423 words

...flasks, incense burners and lemon squeezers; these often bear Armenian inscriptions. After the Armenians were expelled from Kütahya during World War I, several Armenian families settled in Jerusalem, where they continue to manufacture polychrome ceramics. New Julfa, the Armenian suburb of Isfahan, founded in the early 17th century, was another center of Armenian tile production was. Large pictorial panels made of square blue-and-yellow painted tiles are found in situ in some of the city's Armenian churches. A fine example is the Adoration of the Magi ...

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
825 words

...its territory extended from the Caucasus to the Mediterranean. When Armenia's ally Mithradates VI Eupator of Pontus was defeated, however, Pompey broke up Tigranes’ empire, restricting the king's control to the region known as Greater Armenia. Lesser Armenia, to the northwest, was entrusted to a different dynasty and in 72 ce was annexed to direct Roman rule. A separate Armenian kingdom to the west, Armenian Copk, was also absorbed into the Roman Empire in the first century ce . Around this time legionary bases were established at Satala, Melitene...

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Dennis R. Papazian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,268 words

...its Armenian population, and they suppressed Armenian language and culture in Nagorno-Karabagh, a process which the Armenians called cultural genocide. With the advent of Mikhail Gorbachev and perestroika in the 1980s, however, the Armenians of Nagorno-Karabagh demanded complete autonomy; when the Soviet Union imploded in 1991 , they voted for independence and union with Armenia. Armenians were massacred in Azerbaijani cities in 1988 and 1990 , and a war broke out in 1992 after the fall of the USSR. Over a half million Armenian refugees fled to Armenia or...

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
855 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Armenia soon became involved in the violent clashes between Armenians in Nagorno Karabakh and Azerbaijani authorities. Armenian forces occupied Nagorno Karabakh as well as some strategic Azerbaijani territory in 1993 . Partly as a consequence of the war, which cut Armenia off from Azerbaijani oil supplies, Armenia's economy, devoid of mineral resources or fertile soil, collapsed. By 1994 , Gross Domestic Product had fallen to 33 per cent of its 1990 levels, while inflation stood at over 4,000 per cent. Despite nominal independence, therefore, Armenia...

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A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,296 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Armenia Basic information Land area: 30,000 sq. km People: Armenian 98%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1%, other 1% Language: Armenian, Kurdish Religion: Armenian Apostolic 93%, other 7% Government: Republic Population (2017 estimate): 2.93 million Percentage urban: 64.7% Population estimate for 2035: 2.87 million Life expectancy at birth 2015: 78.7 (F), 71.1 (M) Capital city: Yerevan, 1.1 million Currency: Armenian dram Major exports: processed foods, textiles, polished diamonds, metallic and mining products GDP per head,...

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The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...poaching; by first marinating the trout with red peppers; or serving with a walnut sauce. Typical Armenian soups are prepared with a tomato, egg-and-lemon, or yoghurt sauce flavoured with onion or garlic and herbs. A cucumber and yoghurt soup called Jajik is common. Fruits, which are abundant in Armenia, are often added to soups and stews (in line with the general Caucasian liking for sweet and sour). Apricots, for which Armenia is noted, feature in many Armenian soups. The most favoured and best-known type of soup is bozbash , basically made with fatty...

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Caroline Gilby

The Oxford Companion to Wine (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,086 words

...downstream from Armenia. In 301 ce Armenia became the first nation to adopt Christianity as its official state religion. The Christian faith shaped Armenian culture intimately, and wine became not only an intrinsic part of religious rituals ( see eucharist ) but also was used for medicinal purposes. The biblical story of Noah is closely linked to Armenia. According to Genesis, Noah made landfall on the slopes of Mt Ararat (in Türkiye today) then planted vines on the foothills in Armenia and made wine. Old manuscripts confirm Armenia’s high level of...

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Christina Maranci

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
482 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Situated in eastern Anatolia, south of the Black Sea, Armenia was often the neighbour of powerful empires to the East and West. From antiquity to the Middle Ages, the area was also home to a distinctive architecture. The scant remains of pre-Christian building reveal both Iranian and Hellenistic traditions, such as the classical prostyle structure at Garni. Armenia’s conversion to Christianity in the 4th century ushered in the construction of basilican churches. The use of lightweight volcanic stone permitted barrel vaulting, and the structures were...

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
5,031 words
Illustration(s):
1

... and people of Greater Armenia early in the 4th c. (in 314 rather than 301 ). The evangelization of Armenia and the consecration of St Gregory at Caesarea detached the Armenians for ever from their oriental forebears and identified the image of Armenia with its Christianity. The Armenian patriarch residing in Sasanid territory had to recognise, at least de facto , the jurisdiction of the King of Kings, but the latter was obliged to tolerate the new religion after the uprising of 481 . The parallel distancing of the Armenian Church from ...

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Emma Petrossian

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
2,890 words

...Pedagogical Institute (department of Armenian folk dance); and the club-organized dancing schools. There are as well two state dance ensembles: the Armenian State Dance Ensemble and the Armenian State Ensemble for Folk Singing and Dancing. Professional ethnochoreologists of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Academy of Sciences, Republic of Armenia, continue to collect, describe, analyze, publish, and do fieldwork on folk dance and folk theater. Khachatrian, Genja . Armenian Folk Dances of Javakhk (in Armenian) . Hay Azgagrutjun ev Banahjusutjun ...

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Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and Josef Wiesehöfer

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,175 words

...Armenia than was previously indicated, i.e. the era of the famous Armenian king, Tigranes (1) II the Great ( c. 95– c. 56 bc ) who was famed in literary sources for his politics of philhellenism ( cf. Tigranocerta ). The imperialistic ambitions of Tigranes and his alliance with Mithradates VI, king of Pontus, brought him into conflict with Rome; after the campaigns of L. Licinius Lucullus (2) and Pompey Armenia became a Roman protectorate. Augustus , and the emperors who succeeded him, were dedicated to maintaining the status quo . Armenia...

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