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antiphon

Subject: Music

(from Gr., ‘sounding across’). 1 A versicle or phrase sung by one choir in reply to another. 2 In the RC Church the antiphon is intoned or ...

antiphon

antiphon   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
67 words

... Alternate short verses or phrases (usually of a psalm or canticle) sung by two spatially separated halves of a choir (designated decani and cantoris ). More generally, antiphon refers to a short piece of plainsong during the recitation of divine office. The text of the antiphon usually serves to reinforce a psalm's Christian significance. The music and text of antiphons is contained in an antiphonal or...

Antiphon

Antiphon (c.480–411)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
98 words

... ( c .480–411 bc ) Athenian orator and Sophist . Scholars have disagreed whether there are two Antiphons or whether, as is now generally believed to be the case, the orator is identical with the Sophist. The oratorical Antiphon had a distinguished public career, mainly composing speeches for others. He was the brains of the oligarchic conspiracy, and when that failed was condemned to death, although his own speech in his defence was regarded as the best of its kind ever made. The sophistical Antiphon is mentioned by Xenophon and Aristotle as...

antiphon

antiphon   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
137 words

... [from Gr ., sounding across]. A versicle or phrase sung by one choir in reply to another. In the RC Church the antiphon is intoned or sung during the recitation of Divine Office, before and after the psalm or canticle, which is itself responsively sung by the singers divided into two bodies. The antiphon may serve to reinforce the meaning of the psalm, or to introduce a Christian application of the orig. Jewish text. The plainsong tune of the antiphon, though not the same as the ‘tone’ of the psalm, is in keeping with it as to mode, etc. Many ...

Antiphon

Antiphon (3)   Reference library

Andrew L. Brown

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
52 words

... (3) , tragic poet put to death by Dionysius (1) I of Syracuse (Arist. Rh. 2. 6). Anecdotes belonging to him are attached to Antiphon ( 1 ) in the biographical tradition (Philostr. VS 1. 15. 3, etc.). TrGF 1 2 . 193–6; Musa Tragica 128–33, 286–7. Andrew L....

Antiphon

Antiphon (c.480–411bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
670 words

... ( c.480–411 bce ), Athenian intellectual . Antiphon was the leader of an oligarchic coup in 411 ; democracy was soon restored, and Antiphon was tried, convicted of treason, and executed, despite giving what Thucydides calls the “best defense speech in a capital case” (8.68). Thucydides also praises Antiphon for his intellect and integrity and says that he was much in demand as an adviser, particularly by those with difficult legal cases. The wide range of his works has led many scholars to speak of two different Antiphons, an orator and a Sophist,...

antiphon

antiphon   Reference library

David Hiley and Alex Lingas

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
473 words

...1200, sometimes over 2000 antiphons. Most are simple in style and many are set to ‘prototype’ melodies—popular tunes expanded or contracted in accordance with the number of syllables in the new text. The mode of the antiphon determines the choice of psalm tone to which the succeeding psalm will be sung. Consequently there are many collections of antiphons arranged tonally (all the D-mode antiphons first, then the E-mode, etc.), in books known as ‘tonaries’. But the chief music book containing antiphons was the *antiphoner . Antiphons were most often used in...

Antiphon

Antiphon   Reference library

Michael Gagarin

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
712 words

...Antiphon highly for integrity ( aretē ), intelligence, and power of expression, adding that he stayed in the background himself but made his reputation giving advice to others. He credits Antiphon with planning the oligarchic coup that overturned the democratic constitution of Athens for a few months in 411 bc (for this, the regime of the ‘Four Hundred’, see athens ( history ) ). When democracy was restored, most leaders of the coup fled, but Antiphon and Archeptolemus remained to stand trial for treason; both were convicted and executed. Antiphon’s...

antiphon

antiphon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
177 words

... The primary sense of “antiphon” is the chanting of alternate choirs. It is still used in this sense in the West for the psalmody of the office . But in the Latin tradition the term has come, from at least the 7th-8th cc., to designate a formula, often very brief, chanted before and after the psalm or sometimes between the verses. By extension, the term is also employed for formulae of the same type chanted independently of the psalmody. In the Byzantine liturgy the term “antiphon” is employed in the same senses, but further designates the 68 groups of...

antiphon

antiphon   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... A song, hymn, or poem in which two voices or choruses respond to one another in alternate verses or stanzas , as is common in verses written for religious services. Adjective : antiphonal [ an- tif -ŏn-ăl ] . See also amoebean verses , anthem...

Antiphon

Antiphon (2)   Reference library

Christopher C. W. Taylor

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
161 words

... (2) , of Athens(5th. cent. bc), sophist . Scholars are divided on whether he was identical with the orator ( see antiphon (1) ). Works attributed to him include Concord and Truth ; of the latter some papyrus fragments survive (DK 44), critical of conventional morality from a standpoint of self-interest. Testimonia and fragments in DK 2. 334–70; Eng. trans. in R. K. Sprague (ed.), The Older Sophists (1972) (add POxy. 3647); Guthrie , Hist. Gk Phil. 3; T. J. Saunders , Proc. of the Aristotelian Soc. 1977–8; D. J. Furley , in G. B. Kerferd ...

antiphon

antiphon   Reference library

Juliette J. Day

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...from the singing of antiphons before and after each psalm. In the Latin liturgy, the pattern of singing antiphons before and after each psalm was established for the monastic offices in the 6th century (cf. RegBen 9–17). An obscure passage in the Liber Pontificalis (45, 1) suggests that Celestine I (422–32) introduced the introit antiphon at the Eucharist at Rome . It was an established part of the Mass in 6th-century Gaul , but for Rome the first detailed description is in Ordines Romani 1, which prescribes an antiphon sung before and after a...

Antiphon

Antiphon   Quick reference

Michael Gagarin

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
694 words

...(8. 68) praises Antiphon highly for ability ( aretē ), intelligence, and power of expression, adding that he stayed in the background himself but made his reputation giving advice to others. He credits Antiphon with planning the oligarchic coup that overturned the democratic constitution of Athens for a few months in 411 bc (the so-called regime of the Four Hundred). When democracy was restored, most leaders of the coup fled, but Antiphon and Archeptolemus remained to stand trial for treason; both were convicted and executed. Antiphon's speech in his...

Antiphon

Antiphon (1)   Reference library

Michael Gagarin

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
773 words

...Thucydides (8. 68) praises Antiphon highly for integrity ( aretē ), intelligence, and power of expression, adding that he stayed in the background himself but made his reputation giving advice to others. He credits Antiphon with planning the oligarchic coup that overturned the democratic constitution of Athens for a few months in 411 bc ( see four hundred ). When democracy was restored, most leaders of the coup fled, but Antiphon and Archeptolemus remained to stand trial for treason; both were convicted and executed. Antiphon's speech in his own defence,...

antiphon

antiphon   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
61 words

... (originally ‘something sung alternately by two choirs’). In the W. Church, sentences, usually from the Bible, recited before and after the Psalms and Canticles in the Divine Office . The name is also used of the four Anthems of the BVM, one of which is sung after Compline . In the E. Church the word is applied to various chants sung...

Antiphon

Antiphon   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
74 words

... (Gk., antiphōnon , ‘responsive’). 1 In the W. Church, sentences, usually from the Bible , recited before and after the Psalms and canticles in the divine office , by alternative choirs or voices. They vary with the season or feast. 2 In the Orthodox liturgy, in addition to responsories, it may be any of the three anthems at the beginning of the eucharist ; or any ‘alternate utterance’ in which psalms or other words are sung...

antiphon

antiphon   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
189 words

...antiphon (Gk. ἀντίφωνον ‎ , orig. ‘something sung alternately by two choirs’) . In the W. Church, sentences, usually from Scripture, recited before and after the Psalms and Canticles in the Divine Office. They vary with the season or feast, and are often intended to indicate the spirit in which the (invariable) Psalms and Canticles are sung. They are now recited completely before and after the Psalms or Canticles. The name is also applied to the Four Anthems of Our Lady, sung, according to the season, at the close of Compline . In the E. Church the word...

Antiphon

Antiphon   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
126 words

... (ἀντίφωνον), a selection from the Psalter, followed by a doxology , to be sung in the liturgy by two choirs in alternation. The singing of antiphona ( antipsallein ) is known from the 4th C. onward ( Basil the Great , PG 32:764A). An antiphon may consist of several psalms, not necessarily consecutive; of one psalm only; or even of single verses. A refrain is not essential, but when found it is called hypopsalma, ephymnion, hypakoe , or troparion —the name antiphon never being applied to the refrain itself. An archaic musical feature survives in...

Antiphon

Antiphon (c.480–411 bc)   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
621 words

...giving advice to others. He credits Antiphon with planning the oligarchic coup that overturned the democratic constitution of Athens for a few months in 411 bc ( see four hundred ). When democracy was restored, most leaders of the coup fled, but Antiphon and Archeptolemus remained to stand trial for treason; both were convicted and executed. Antiphon's speech in his own defence, a small papyrus fragment of which survives, was the finest speech Thucydides knew. When congratulated by Agathon on its brilliance, Antiphon replied that he would rather have...

votive antiphon

votive antiphon   Reference library

Alex Lingas

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
70 words

...votive antiphon . A Latin antiphon sung together with a versicle and collect at the end of an office, especially Compline, honouring a different object from that of the main service ( see memorial ). Although the term refers most commonly to the four *antiphons of the Blessed Virgin Mary , which remained in use after the *Council of Trent , earlier sources such as the Eton Choirbook contain many others. Alex...

antiphon, antiphonal

antiphon, antiphonal   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
83 words

..., antiphonal From Greek and Latin antiphona , ‘sounding over against’. In Latin medieval liturgical chant, an antiphon is a short chant sung before a psalm or canticle and repeated after it. The adjective ‘antiphonal’ is sometimes used to describe *psalmody performed with framing antiphons in this way. However, ‘antiphonal’ could also be defined (for example, by *Isidore of Seville) as performance by two choirs in alternation. See also psalmody . David Hiley M. Huglo and J. Halmo, ‘ Antiphon ’, NGD2 , vol. 1,...

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