Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-20 of 610 entries  for:

  • All: Animal Husbandry x
clear all

View:

Overview

Animal Husbandry

Subject: History

Concerned not only with ‘domestic animals,’ but also bees and silkworms. Throughout the MA, animals for the most part were allowed to wander free; thus horses, for example, were often ... ...

animal husbandry

animal husbandry   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
339 words

...was hardly used at all. Animal breeding modified the medieval landscape. It brought about the reduction of fallow fields ( saltus ) and an increase in *enclosures and in crop rotation. It encouraged the sowing of oats (for horses) and led to an increase in grass meadows. Modifications of the environment continued even when animal breeding experienced a crisis at the beginning of the 14th century. With the demographic recovery, the cultivation of fields took precedence over animal husbandry , while in the 15th century animal husbandry became a focus of...

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,015 words

... Husbandry In the Greek farming tradition, animal husbandry complements agriculture: animals can graze on uncultivated or fallow land, eat waste products from crops, and provide meat, hides, milk, hair, or wool. Bones, figurines, and vase paintings, Bronze Age and Classical economic records, and literature all provide information about the use of animals in Greek agriculture. Dogs were domesticated well before the Neolithic and were used for hunting, for herding, and occasionally for food. By 6800 bce the earliest farmers brought from the Near East sheep...

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,795 words

...had been successful for millennia, was replaced by sedentary farming and animal husbandry as the primary mode of subsistence for most communities. These three aspects of the Neolithic Revolution—sedentism, husbandry, and agriculture—are interwoven but independent components of the process; thus, evidence for the presence of one is not certain proof for the existence of the others. For this reason, the primary evidence for animal husbandry is to be sought in the bones of animals recovered at archaeological sites. Bones reflect domestication in two ways. One is...

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry   Reference library

Albert SUNDRUM

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,368 words

...the sustainability of the agro-food system. Sustainable Animal Husbandry A sustainable animal husbandry system can be defined as one in which (1) resources are kept in balance through conservation, efficient feeding strategies, and recycling; (2) practices preserve resources, benefit animal health and welfare, and prevent environmental damage; and (3) productivity retains importance, because not only animal husbandry needs to be sustained, but so do farms. But because these three issues—animal-related, biophysical, and economic—often conflict, it is...

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry   Reference library

Stephen J. G. Hall and J. Terrence McCabe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,478 words

... Husbandry [ This entry includes two subentries, an overview and a discussion of animal husbandry in Africa . See also Animals and Humans ; Cattle ; and Horses . ] Overview Farm animals today are primarily seen as producers of meat, milk, and fibers, converting plant material that humans cannot eat into valued commodities. It is easy to overlook both the other functions that farm animals have performed in history and also the new functions that are being found for them in the modern world. Before the eighteenth century most livestock were not primarily...

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... Husbandry . No development has had a greater effect on human history than the domestication of plants and animals. Domestication allowed for a controllable economic base and a need for complex social interactions that led to plant and animal husbandry and, ultimately, to the earliest civilizations. Animal domestication occurred independently in several regions of the world (e.g., the Near East, China, and Mesoamerica, among others), but archaeological evidence from the Near East has established it as the cradle of earliest domestication and husbandry....

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... Husbandry Animal agriculture has evolved with the growth of the human population from 4 million people ten thousand years ago to the 5.85 billion people in the world near the end of the twentieth century. Domestication of a relatively few of the available mammalian species initially occurred in conjunction with climatic, cultural, and societal changes following the end of the last ice age, the Wisconsin deglaciation. Agrarian-based communities developed independently around the world, and generic animal husbandry practices became common. [See Agriculture...

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry   Reference library

John R. Walton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,485 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the main domestic species. While the second phase in the development of animal husbandry resulted in the appearance of breeds, the third witnessed their proliferation and the improvement of those already established. The main factor was increased demand for animal products within the context of commercializing, urbanizing, and less exclusively agricultural economies. Such Classical-era writers as Aristotle, Varro, and Columella discussed the mechanisms of animal breeding; but enduring, improved, or high-performance breeds only appeared in...

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry   Reference library

Edward F. Maher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,492 words

... Husbandry Animal exploitation was practiced by those who lived in urban centers, satellite towns, rural villages, fortified strongholds, and coastal ports. Animals were important to sedentary agriculturalists as well as nomadic and seminomadic pastoralists. The scientific study of the remains of animal bones and teeth from archaeological sites (zooarchaeology) provides the opportunity to determine the varied ways in which animals were perceived, valued, and utilized that may be temporally or culturally specific. Animals were not only linked to subsistence...

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry   Reference library

J. L. Anderson

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and Animal Husbandry Agriculture and animal husbandry was a fertile field of inquiry in the American Enlightenment. Many innovators applied science to farming in an attempt to improve production, profits, and to create a republic of virtuous, independent farmers. Thomas Jefferson was the most famous agricultural innovator of the American Enlightenment. He imported many crop varieties for propagation on his own plantation and those of others who shared his interest. Jefferson’s most significant contribution to American agriculture, however, was in the...

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,846 words

...and Animal Husbandry . From 1740 to 1850 , the organization and efficiency of much of western European agriculture were transformed. Sometimes called an agricultural revolution, this process was prior to or concomitant with the industrialization of several European economies. The first, most thoroughgoing, and most successful exemplar of this transformation occurred in the British Isles. Agrarian Reform For landowners and their agents, agrarian reform was a practical response to the basic needs of a society undergoing unprecedented population...

animal husbandry

animal husbandry n   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford Italian Dictionary: English-Italian (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
6 words
animal husbandry

animal husbandry noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
29 words
animal husbandry

animal husbandry noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
31 words
animal husbandry

animal husbandry noun   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
14 words
Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Concerned not only with ‘domestic animals,’ but also bees and silkworms. Throughout the MA, animals for the most part were allowed to wander free; thus horses, for example, were often ...
Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry  

From 1740 to 1850, the organization and efficiency of much of western European agriculture were transformed. Sometimes called an agricultural revolution, this process was prior to or concomitant with ...
Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1750–1850 , when over 4 000 private Acts of Parliament were passed to permit the enclosing of at least 6.8 million acres. During the 1760s and 1770s most of the surviving open‐field parishes of the midlands were enclosed, so as to allow farmers to shift their attention to animal husbandry. A new wave of activity took place during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars of 1793–1815 , when food prices rose rapidly. Much of this was concerned not with reorganizing open fields but with bringing the poorer‐quality land of the wastes and commons into...

In the Beginning: The Earliest History

In the Beginning: The Earliest History   Reference library

Michael D. Coogan

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,305 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of humans and animals have also been found, and, most remarkably, a group of over thirty clay-plaster statues and busts of both adults and children, some nearly a meter (3 feet) long. In the succeeding centuries, the settlement grew because of its ecologically advantageous location and the growing sophistication in agriculture and animal husbandry. By 6000 the village had become 10 hectares (25 acres) large. Domesticated pig and cattle made their appearance, as did dogs, and the villagers' dependence on hunting for animal protein had...

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...closer and closer to identifying with the position of the labouring agricultural worker. Cobbett participated in the practices of improvement; but while other farmers strove to reduce the number of workers and raise the level of productivity, Cobbett aimed, in his ‘radical husbandry’, to make the agricultural worker a self-sufficient producer. In this context the description of Cobbett as a ‘Radical Tory’ is a misnomer, since he developed a *class [15] analysis of rural oppression, supporting the Captain Swing rural *riots and by the early 1830s...

View: