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Andrew II of Hungary

(1177–1235) King of Hungary from 1205 to 1235, second son of Béla III (1172–1196). Having opposed his brother Imre I (1196–1204) several times, Andrew II inherited his throne in ...

Andrew II of Hungary

Andrew II of Hungary (1177–1235)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
192 words

... II of Hungary ( 1177–1235 ) King of Hungary from 1205 to 1235 , second son of Béla III ( 1172–1196 ). Having opposed his brother Imre I ( 1196–1204 ) several times, Andrew II inherited his throne in 1205 . In 1200 , he had married Gertrude of Meran , and their eldest daughter was St Elizabeth of Hungary ( 1207–1231 ). Andrew made large donations of the royal domains to his barons. After violent conflicts set the queen in opposition to the nobility , Gertrude was assassinated in 1213 . Fulfilling a vow of his father, in 1217 Andrew ...

Andrew II of Hungary

Andrew II of Hungary  

(1177–1235)King of Hungary from 1205 to 1235, second son of Béla III (1172–1196). Having opposed his brother Imre I (1196–1204) several times, Andrew II inherited his throne in 1205. ...
Golden Bull

Golden Bull  

(of Andrew II of Hungary) (1222/31). Privilegial charter (with a golden seal pendant) on noble liberties (extended to lesser nobles in 1267), in response to a movement of nobles and ...
noble diet

noble diet  

(Hungary, Bohemia)Called Sejm in Poland. In Hungary an annual judicial meeting of freemen (nobles) on St Stephen’s day was stipulated as early as the Golden Bull of Andrew II ...
Princedom of Transylvania

Princedom of Transylvania  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
House of ZápolyaiHouse of BáthoryHouse of SzékelyHouse of BocskayHouse of RákócziHouse of BáthoryHouse of BethlenHouse of RákócziHouse of KeményHouse of ApafyHouse of RákócziBiographisches Lexikon ...
Eugene Paul Wigner

Eugene Paul Wigner  

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(1902–1995)Hungarian-born US physicist, who was awarded the 1963 Nobel Prize for Physics for his introduction of the concept of parity into nuclear physics.The son of a Budapest businessman, Wigner ...
Elizabeth of Hungary

Elizabeth of Hungary  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1207–31),queen. Born at Pressburg, the daughter of King Andrew II of Hungary, she was brought up in Thuringia and in 1221 married its Landgrave, Louis IV. Ardent, passionate, and handsome, she ...
World War II

World War II  

(1939–45)A war fought between the Axis Powers and the Allies, including Britain, the Soviet Union, and the USA. Having secretly rearmed Germany, Hitler occupied (1936) the Rhineland, in contravention ...
World War I

World War I  

(1914–18)A war fought between the Allied Powers – Britain, France, Russia, Japan, and Serbia – who were joined in the course of the war by Italy (1915), Portugal and Romania (1916), the USA and ...
music theatre

music theatre  

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A type of comp., sometimes quasi‐operatic but more usually a concert piece, for which a semi‐staged presentation is necessary. It developed after about 1950, esp. in USA and Ger. An Eng. example is ...
Angevins of Hungary

Angevins of Hungary   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
254 words

...of Hungary The Angevins of Hungary were descended from the Angevins of Naples . In 1269 Charles I of Anjou concluded a double marriage treaty with the Árpáds ( Charles II marrying Mary of Hungary and Ladislas IV the Cuman marrying Isabella of Anjou). This was the basis of the claims of Charles Martel († 1295 ), son of Charles II , claims bequeathed to his son Charles I ( 1309–1342 ) who became the heir of the Árpáds, extinguished in 1301 . Charles I tried to obtain the inheritance of his cousin Robert of Naples by marrying his son ...

servientes regis

servientes regis   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
85 words

...regis Term used for freemen in the king’s service in 13th-century *Hungary ; they became the core of the wide stratum of ‘common nobility’ ( nobiles ). When with the decline of the royal domain formerly free warriors became subject to great lords, the king raised many of them to the status of servitors, and in 1222 —and more explicitly in 1267 (by the *Golden Bull of Andrew II )—granted them noble privileges. János M. Bak M. Rady , Nobility, Land and Service in Medieval Hungary ...

Golden Bull

Golden Bull   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
103 words

...Bull (of Andrew II of Hungary) ( 1222/31 ). Privilegial charter (with a golden seal pendant) on noble liberties (extended to lesser nobles in 1267 ), in response to a movement of nobles and royal servitors ( * servientes regis ), guaranteeing them habeas corpus, freedom from taxation, limited military service, and the right of resistance to a king who would infringe upon these rights. From 1351 onwards kings of Hungary swore to observe it at their coronation. János M. Bak J. Deér , ‘ Der Weg zur Goldenen Bulle Andreas’ II. ’, Schweizer Beiträge zur...

Hungary

Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
581 words

... or (Hungarian) Magyarország . . From 1001 until 1301 Hungary was ruled by the 23 kings of the Árpád dynasty. When Andrew III , the last Árpád king, died without an heir in 1301 , Hungary became an elective monarchy; this system gave considerable power to the Hungarian nobility, but for the next 300 years Hungary was ruled by a series of foreign monarchs. From 1307 to 1395 Hungary was ruled by an Angevin dynasty; in 1385 the last member of the dynasty, Queen Maria , married Sigismund of Luxemburg, who was crowned as king of Hungary in 1387 ...

Pilis

Pilis   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
90 words

...(monastery) *Cistercian monastery in *Hungary , founded in 1184 by King Béla III in the royal *forest of Pilis and destroyed during the Ottoman invasion c .1526 . Its ruins, which were excavated from 1967 to 1981 , are still visible near Budapest. The wife of King Andrew II was buried here in 1213 . The *monastery had a sophisticated system of *water management and was engaged in industrial activities, such as *metalworking . Péter Szabó R. Békefi , A pilisi apátság története 1184–1541 (1891). I. Holl , Funde aus dem...

Hungary

Hungary   Reference library

John C. Swanson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,762 words

...have exchanged control of the government every four years. In April 2006 , however, the election results allowed the Socialists, the incumbents, in a coalition with the Liberals, to continue to govern Hungary for another four years. [ See also Austria-Hungary and Hungarian Revolt . ] Bibliography Janos, Andrew C. The Politics of Backwardness in Hungary, 1825–1945 . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982. A standard work on nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Hungary. Kontler, László . A History of Hungary: Millennium in Central...

aviticitas

aviticitas   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
68 words

...Entail in medieval *Hungary . The inalienable status of noble property, based on a tribal tradition that the descensus estate should descend to brothers, collateral relatives, and kinsmen. It was extended to donations by King St *Stephen , and though King Andrew II ’s 1222 *Golden Bull introduced free alienation, was re-established by King *Louis the Great in 1351 . Attila Pál Bárány A. Murarik , Az ősiség alapintézményének eredete ...

Transylvania

Transylvania   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
420 words

...no political power. In 1211 King Andrew II invited members of the Teutonic order to settle in Transylvania, so swelling the number of German speakers. The Saxons were given special privileges, and founded German towns. The German name for Transylvania (Siebenbürgen) refers to the seven principal German towns, each of which has a German name, a Hungarian name, a Romanian name, and a Latin name: German Klausenburg is Hungarian Kolozsvár, Romanian Cluj (now Cluj-Napoca), and Latin Claudiopolis; German Kronstadt is Hungarian Brassó, Romanian Braşov, and Latin...

noble levy

noble levy   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
235 words

...levy In Hungary also called generalis exercitus ; in Poland, pospolite ruszenie . Based on their fidelitas to the ruler, in *Hungary all noblemen had the duty to go to war under his banner. At least from 1222 ( *Golden Bull of Andrew II) Hungarian nobles were obligated to fight only within the country; later the obligations were even more circumscribed. By the late 15th century this force, mainly of light cavalry, gradually lost its military value. Wars were fought by the * banderia of great lords and, under *Matthias Corvinus , by a ...

Béla IV

Béla IV (1206–1270)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...IV ( 1206–1270 ), king of Hungary from 1235 to 1270 . Béla, renowned as the second founder of the country, rebuilt Hungary after the Mongol invasion of 1241–1242 . He was the firstborn son of Andrew II and Gertrude of Merania. The assassination of his mother in 1213 and his conflicts with his father caused a difficult childhood that shaped his whole life. Béla was a serious, conservative, rather humorless person with uncommon administrative gifts, strongly disapproving of his father’s happy-go-lucky ways. His model was his grandfather, Béla III . As...

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