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American Notes for General Circulation

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is ...

American Notes for General Circulation

American Notes for General Circulation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
91 words

... Notes for General Circulation , travel account by Dickens , published in 1842 . Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842 ) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is almost wholly descriptive, and does not attempt to analyze institutions. He wrote in a complimentary fashion about much of America, but antagonized many readers by criticizing the penal system, the lack of copyright and hence the pirating of English works, and the entire system of slavery and its...

American Notes for General Circulation

American Notes for General Circulation   Reference library

F. S. Schwarzbach

The Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,123 words

... Notes for General Circulation As Dickens readied himself to set off for the United States aboard the steamship Britannia early in January 1842 , he studied several recent accounts of travel in America —those of James Silk Buckingham , Frederick marryat , and Harriet martineau ( see travel ; travel literature ). No doubt, like any eager traveller, he was deciding what places to visit, preparing himself for new experiences, learning about local customs and manners, and so on. But almost as certainly he was thinking already about the travel book...

American Notes for General Circulation

American Notes for General Circulation  

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is almost ...
46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

Eugenia Roldán Vera

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,881 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Uruguay, and Venezuela. CERLALC’s aim was and is to promote the production, circulation, distribution, and reading of books in Latin America. Its design incorporates legal frameworks for free trade in books; it encourages regional governments to sign international conventions concerning copyright and against *piracy ; it initiates reading campaigns and training for professionals in the book industry. CERLALC also monitors aspects of book production and circulation in most Latin American countries, about which it publishes quantitative material and qualitative...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

Patricia Lockhart Fleming

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,134 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...to subscribers who signed up for a religious or topical volume. For everyday reading, almanacs—particularly Quebec’s literary and historical series—remained popular. The circulation of daily and weekly newspapers exceeded 1 million copies before the end of the 19 th century; and despite an abundance of imported titles, domestic publishers supplied religious and agricultural serials as well as illustrated magazines. The postal rate, reduced to a penny per pound by the end of the century, encouraged the publication and circulation of Canadian periodicals....

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

P. F. Kornicki

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...either for reasons of economy, or because of rarity, or as a way of learning the text: this last purpose was recommended, for example, in the case of the Onna daigaku (Greater Learning for Women), a moral primer for girls first published in the early 18 th century. Another reason for preferring MS over print was to restrict the circulation of new knowledge: innovative medical techniques or new styles of ikebana (flower arrangement), for example, generated an income for the initiators, and it was therefore in their interests to restrict circulation by...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...run of 100 copies. Modelled on the * London Gazette , it contained official notices, advertisements, and general news. With such a tiny circulation, its survival depended on Howe’s government salary and the success of his other business ventures, notably trading in sandalwood. In 1810 , Howe replaced the original wooden *common press with an iron *Stanhope . By 1819 , the colony’s population had grown to 30,000 and the Gazette ’s circulation to 400. Howe’s publishing activities expanded to include missionary works in Pacific languages, some literary...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

Christine Thomas

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,074 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...disseminate dissident and other forbidden literature but also to make up for the shortage of popular and perfectly legal publications. During the Brezhnev era, known as the ‘period of stagnation’, the book industries remained stable. In the 1970s and early 1980s , all printing was censored, and the central control of raw materials and printing continued to influence print runs. Authors were paid to a standard formula, according to genre (e.g. fiction or textbook) and length. Perhaps for this reason, the average length of a Soviet book in 1984 was about 136...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

Christopher de Hamel

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...By about 1150 , however, the number of works in circulation had rapidly become far too great for any person to manage. New kinds of books were therefore devised: glossed texts with selected marginal quotations for quick reference, *encyclopaedias (such as Peter Lombard ’s Sententiae for theology and Gratian’s Decretum for canon law), *concordances , *florilegia , digests, and *indexes . Scribes devised ways of looking things up, with devices such as alphabetical order, chapter numbers for the Bible and other texts, tables of contents, coloured...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... ( 1821 ). Both were denied legal protection on the grounds of their blasphemous and seditious content, thereby enabling a host of predatory publishers to produce cheap pirate editions. Part of the reason for Byron's extraordinary circulation figures was precisely the inability of his legal publishers to prevent such piracy. Piracy might have been a problem for law-abiding British publishers, particularly because of the difficulty of policing the activities of systematic operators like Patrick Byrne ( fl. 1789–1802 ), who worked out of the lively provincial...

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

Michael Harris

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,085 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Street paper to achieve circulation of a million copies for a single issue. At the same time, the newspaper moved beyond the orbit of the relatively conventional and sluggish book trade into its own industrial system. It was a sign of the times when, in 1937 , the book trade’s much-venerated business organization was retitled the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers. Despite this remarkable growth in output, the status and importance of the newspaper remained contested issues. At the end of the 19 th century, for example, the idea of the...

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns   Reference library

‘Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na‘im

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,922 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... In the following remarks, I am assuming, for the sake of argument, that Rushdie's book is extremely offensive to Muslims. I am also assuming that freedom of expression is not absolute. It is conceivable that a published work, whether claiming to be a work of fiction or scholarship, can cause such harm to some identifiable private or public interest as to justify the banning or restriction of its circulation. Although I believe that it should be extremely difficult to make a convincing case for banning a work, I am assuming that it is not impossible...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

Vincent Giroud

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,215 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Jean de Gonet, has been remarkable both for his efforts to democratize original bindings by using industrial *leather (‘revorim’) and because, unlike them, he operated his own workshop rather than being strictly a designer. World War II, when the country was occupied for more than four years, had dramatic consequences for the book world. Censorship was imposed by the Nazis (the notorious ‘Otto list’); shortages of paper more than halved production; ‘Aryanization’ measures affected individuals (such as the general administrator of the BN, Julien Cain, who...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

Neil Harris

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,132 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the key moment in this literacy-failure probably occurred in 1559 , when the first Roman * Index banned the Bible in Italian. Quite independently of the sacred text’s content and import, the Bible is a large book and therefore its removal from circulation had important and damaging consequences for the general standard of literacy. Before that date, reading the scriptures, even by those who knew little or no Latin, was fairly widespread in Italian society. The earliest volgarizzamento of the Bible by Nicolò Malermi had appeared in Venice in 1471 . The...

The Wisdom of Solomon

The Wisdom of Solomon   Reference library

William Horbury and William Horbury

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,675 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Judea and probably including Judean refugees, seems the likeliest cradle for the Greek text of the whole book, perhaps between 100 and 50 bce ; these dates are speculative, but they would suit the points of contact with both Sirach and the Psalms of Solomon noted above. Sirach was put into Greek probably in 132 bce , with what seems (especially but not only in the longer form of the Greek text) a fresh recognition of reward and punishment hereafter, specifically for circulation among Egyptian Jews. Their Greek epitaphs attest a difference of opinion on...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

John L. Flood

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...for example. Even university libraries were hardly user-friendly: those at Leipzig and Halle were open for only four hours a week, and it was considered a real novelty when Göttingen, on its foundation in 1734 , opened its library every day to staff and students and allowed them to borrow books—from the outset, this library was conceived as a research facility. As the reading habit grew, so too did demand for access to books. This resulted in the establishment of lending libraries and ‘reading societies’, which in turn stimulated the demand for more...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

Geoffrey Roper

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,249 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...had published more than 1,600 titles, representing about 20 per cent of total Egyptian book production. As the first press in the Arab world to produce Arabic (and Turkish) books for Muslims, the Būlāq Press occupies a crucial place in Arabic and Muslim book history. Although some of its early output achieved only a very limited circulation, it nevertheless established printing for the first time as a normal method of producing and diffusing texts. Initially, technical and educational works, and, then, historical, literary, and religious titles became...

collections of Dickens materials

collections of Dickens materials  

Printed editions of Dickens's works published in his lifetime, especially first editions in their original serial instalments, often command high prices from dealers. But for the most part such ...
travel and exploration

travel and exploration  

Expanded dramatically during the 19th century. Partly this resulted from vastly improved technologies of travel, the railway and the steamship most obviously, but also through new networks of roads ...
law and legal institutions

law and legal institutions  

The law has long been the butt of writers, artists, and popular culture, quick to seize upon the disjunction between its lofty claims and its debased reality. Dickens drew freely ...

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