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Alpha Farm

Subject: Religion

Located in the coastal range of central Oregon, the intentional community of Alpha Farm was founded in 1972. The community grows a substantial amount of its own food using completely ... ...

Alpha Farm

Alpha Farm   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
551 words

... Farm Located in the coastal range of central Oregon, the intentional community of Alpha Farm was founded in 1972 . The community grows a substantial amount of its own food using completely organic growing methods, and attained certified organic status in January 2001 . Income is shared collectively, and the community owns the land and buildings. Although Alpha members are occasionally employed at “outside” jobs or freelance work, most community work centers on the farm and communally owned enterprises such as Alpha-Bit, a cafe/bookstore/gift shop in...

Alpha Farm

Alpha Farm  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Located in the coastal range of central Oregon, the intentional community of Alpha Farm was founded in 1972. The community grows a substantial amount of its own food using completely ...
Admiral (hop),

Admiral (hop),   Reference library

Thomas Shellhammer, Alfred Haunold, and Peter Darby

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Northdown parents. Admiral has high alpha-acids levels (13%–16% w/w) and moderate oil levels (1.0–1.7 ml/100 g) with an aroma that is described as “pleasant,” or “English.” It has moderate storageability and is only slightly resistant to verticillium wilt. It was developed to replace Wye Target as a high alpha variety but did not actually take hold commercially because it did not have sufficient tolerance of verticillium wilt. It was recorded as moderately resistant in its first test but it soon became obvious during the farm trial stages that it lacked...

Sorachi Ace (hop)

Sorachi Ace (hop)   Reference library

Garrett Oliver

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and was briefly grown in Japan and at Sapporo’s hop farms in China. Research plantings were done at the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Oregon State University research farm in 1994, but the hop was not made available commercially in the United States until released in 2006 by Virgil Gamache Farms of Toppenish, Washington. Sorachi Ace was named after the Sorachi subprefecture of Hokkaido. The breeding goal was a higher-alpha Saaz-type hop, but the result was rather different. Sorachi Ace averages 12%–13% alpha acids, although it has reportedly achieved up to 16%...

Progress (hop)

Progress (hop)   Reference library

Brian Yaeger

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...late 1950s. See wye college . It was brought into the United States by the Department of Agriculture Hop Research Farm in Corvallis, Oregon, in 1966. The hop’s pedigree is a Whitbred Golding variety crossed with a wild American hop. Its alpha acid content is generally in the range of 5% to 7%. Although initially considered a replacement for Fuggle, the latter has generally been replaced not by Progress, but by hops with ever higher alpha ratings. This has limited Progress’ acceptance. Agronomically, Progress is tolerant to verticillium wilt but not to...

Yakima Valley hop region

Yakima Valley hop region   Reference library

Thomas Shellhammer and Val Peacock

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
449 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from superhigh alpha hops to bittering hops and aroma hops. Generally, more than 25 different varieties are cultivated in the region on a commercial scale. These include the higher-alpha varieties Columbus/Tomahawk/Zeus (CTZ), Nugget, and Galena, as well as the important American aroma varieties Willamette, Cascade, and Mount Hood. The higher-alpha varieties account for more than half of the total hop acreage in Washington State. In contrast to the small farm sizes of just a few acres in European hop growing regions, the average farm size in the Yakima...

Hallertau hop region

Hallertau hop region   Reference library

Val Peacock

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Hallertauer Magnum and Hallertauer Taurus are two higher- alpha bitter hop varieties. The English-bred varieties Northern Brewer and Brewer’s Gold were brought to the area in the 1950s because of an outbreak of the soil-borne fungus verticillium wilt, against which these British varieties have a well-tested resistance. See brewer’s gold (hop) and northern brewer (hop) . The Hallertau has long been an aroma hop area, but now high-alpha bittering hops are increasingly grown there as well. See alpha acids . Today, almost as much acreage in the Hallertau is...

Donald, Robyn

Donald, Robyn   Reference library

Terry Sturm

The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
244 words

...on the sophisticated lifestyles of the new elites: corporate executives, property investors, lawyers. The heroines in this world are feisty, independent, career-oriented, and the novels focus explicitly and intensely on sexuality and sexual fantasy. Donald's novels, whose Alpha-male boardroom heroes often begin by seeming callous, domineering and violent, regularly relate this contemporary world to archetypal characters and narratives from myth, fairy tale and legend. In ‘Mean, Moody, and Magnificent: The Hero in Romance Literature’ ( Dangerous Men and...

Spalt (hop)

Spalt (hop)   Reference library

Victoria Carollo Blake

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...with red bines and long lateral branches, but it produces only a modest amount of small cones for a relatively low average yield of only about 1,200 to 1,600 kg/ha (roughly 1,070 to 1,430 lb/acre). Alpha and beta acids both range from 4% to 5%, which is consistent with the other Noble hop varieties. The cohumulone content is moderate at 23% to 28% of alpha acids. Among the variety’s essential oils, myrcene is a low 15%, humulene 25%, caryophyllene 15%, and the floral farnesene a very high 15%. Bibliography Hopfen Spalter . The history of spalt hop...

Amarillo (hop)

Amarillo (hop)   Reference library

Matt Brynildson

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...have shown little interest. Homebrewers have also taken to Amarillo. Amarillo has an alpha acid range of 8% to 11.0%, a beta acid range of 6% to 7%, and a cohumulone range of 21% to 24%. The aroma profile is floral and citrus-like, with notes of tangerine and apricot. The essential oil content is 68% to 70% myrcene, 9% to 11% humulene, 2% to 4% caryophyllene, and 2% to 4% farnesene, which makes it similar in aroma to Cascade and, to some degree, the recent higher- alpha cultivars Simcoe and Summit. Many craft brewers find Amarillo to be “a hop’s hop,” with...

Wye College

Wye College   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in the center of Kent, Wye College specialized in hop research and during the later part of the 20th century developed many novel varieties including Northern Brewer, Challenger, and Brewers Gold. Some varieties such as Target and Yeoman were developed for increased yield of alpha acid, whereas others showed improved disease resistance. More recently, Dr Ray Neve and Dr Peter Darby of Wye pioneered the major development of dwarf hops based on finding a mutant plant with reduced internode length. Dwarf hops provide a major advance in growth and harvesting...

Whitbread Golding Variety (hop)

Whitbread Golding Variety (hop)   Reference library

Carollo Blake Victoria

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., and styrian golding (hop) . WGV matures in mid-season and yields a modest 1,350 to 1,450 kg/ha (1,204 to 1,294 lb/acre). Its main advantage over true Golding is its resistance to verticillium wilt. It is, however, susceptible to downy and powdery mildew. WGV has a moderate alpha acid rating of 5% to 7.5%, with a rather high cohumulone fraction of 33% to 35%. Its beta acid rating is a low 2% to 2.7%. As for essential oils, myrcene accounts for 27%, humulene 42%, caryophyllene 13%, and farnesene 2.1%. Bibliography De Keukeleire, J ., G. Ooms , A....

hops

hops   Reference library

Victoria Carollo Blake

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
3,322 words
Illustration(s):
3

...showing workers standing next to a large sack of hops on a farm in Kent, England. A hop press mechanically packed the hops into these sacks, known as “pockets.” pike microbrewery museum, seattle, wa As the alpha acids were discovered to actually be three related molecules, the same discovery was made for beta acids, which also come in three analogs: lupulone, colupulone, and adlupulone. The character of a hop, in terms of its bittering and aroma potential, is largely determined by its ratio of alpha to beta acids. The most sought-after aroma varieties tend to...

Benevolent Societies

Benevolent Societies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,240 words

...fraternities and sororities started to form early in the twentieth century. Among the most important fraternities are Alpha Phi Alpha, established in 1906 at Cornell University; Kappa Alpha Psi, established in 1911 at Indiana University in Bloomington; Omega Psi Phi, established in 1911 at Howard University; and Phi Beta Sigma, established in 1914 at Howard University. Among the most important black sororities are Alpha Kappa Alpha, established in 1908 at Howard University; Delta Sigma Theta, established in 1913 at Howard University; and Zeta Phi...

Walker, Gwyneth Van Anden

Walker, Gwyneth Van Anden (22 March 1947)   Reference library

J. Michele Edwards

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,445 words

...appear on over 40 commercial CDs, and many noncommercial recordings are posted on her website. In her concern for accessibility she has brought familiar aspects of life to the concert platform; for instance, in Three Songs in Celebration of the Family Farm the chorus imitates the sound of farm machinery and cows, and most notably, in Match Point , when the tennis player Billie Jean King performed as guest soloist at Lincoln Center, bouncing tennis balls on percussion and performing a mimed rally with the conductor (the composer had been a nationally...

Black Towns

Black Towns   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,970 words

...They offered the farm to the land commission at an inflated price; and the commission, unable to find any other land (no one else would sell), bought it and subdivided it into fifty farms in 1870 . This would become Promised Land. In the first two years, thirty-six families found ten dollars to make a down payment on the land and move onto it. Most of the households were headed by men, but Amanda Williams and her four sons bought farms together in 1871 , and other women purchased farms as the years went by. Others inherited land and farmed it until they...

Coyote

Coyote   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,206 words
Illustration(s):
4

...their principal prey, the snowshoe hare ( Lepus americanus ), was scarce. Pack life requires social bonding, pup rearing, and territory defense, and individual roles differ among the pack members. The alpha pair is usually the only one to breed, while juveniles from previous litters act as helpers looking after future generations of pups. The alpha pair's exclusive grip on breeding provides the other pack members with a tricky dilemma. They may remain within the pack in the hope of one day becoming the dominant breeders, or they can disperse to find a...

Cuffe, Paul

Cuffe, Paul (b. 17 January 1759)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,295 words
Illustration(s):
1

...wealth. By 1810 he was easily among the richest black men in the United States, with a fortune estimated at more than twenty-five thousand dollars. He owned a two-hundred-acre farm near Westport, Massachusetts, and built ships large enough to conduct international trade. In 1800 he constructed the 162-ton Hero ; six years later he built a ship nearly twice as large, Alpha . Also in 1806 Cuffe built the 109-ton vessel that became his favorite, Traveller . Cuffe's personal success did not diminish his commitment to the pursuit of racial equality. His...

Atlanta

Atlanta   Reference library

Glenn R. Mack

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...developed rapidly from a frontier railway outpost to a world alpha city. A combination of factors, including transportation, geographical location, demographics, commerce, and hospitality, have contributed to Atlanta's inimitable culinary culture and history. Blessed with more than 10 million acres of surrounding farmland within Georgia, the capital city echoes the state's natural bounty in the eating establishments that range from down-home diners and cafes, to exceptional fine dining, modern farm-to-table restaurants, and finally to the new trend of...

Robeson, Paul

Robeson, Paul   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,009 words
Illustration(s):
1

...pursuing his legal education, he played in the American Professional Football League, served as an assistant football coach at Lincoln University, and starred in the 1922 play Taboo in New York and in London to pay his tuition. At Columbia, Robeson was inducted into Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, the oldest intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity for African Americans. On receiving his law degree in 1923 , Robeson was hired at the law firm of Stotesbury and Miner in New York; he resigned his position when a white secretary refused to take dictation from...

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