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Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

(1934– ) Iranian statesman who became president of Iran (1989–97) on the death of Ayatollah Khomeini. Rafsanjani was born near Kerman, the son of a ...

Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi

Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi (1934–2017)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
112 words

..., Ali Akbar Hashemi ( 1934–2017 ) Iranian statesman and religious leader , President ( 1989–97 ) . A supporter and former pupil of Ayatollah Khomeini, in 1978 he helped organize the mass demonstrations that led to the shah’s overthrow the following year. In 1988 he helped to bring an end to the Iran–Iraq War, having persuaded Khomeini to accept the UN’s peace terms. When Khomeini died in 1989 Rafsanjani emerged from the ensuing power struggle as Iran’s leader. He sought to improve Iran’s relations with the West, and kept his country...

Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi

Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi (1934–2017)   Quick reference

Who's Who in the Twentieth Century

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History
Length:
434 words

..., Ali Akbar Hashemi ( 1934–2017 ) Iranian statesman who became president of Iran ( 1989–97 ) on the death of Ayatollah Khomeini . Rafsanjani was born near Kerman, the son of a pistachio-nut-farming family of moderate wealth. From the age of fourteen he attended theological college at Qom, where he studied Islamic jurisprudence under Ruhollah Khomeini , becoming a mullah. Adopting Khomeini's teachings in both politics and religion, Rafsanjani became a committed enemy of the Shah's westernizing regime and an advocate of theocratic government. When...

Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi

Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
58 words
Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi

Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
63 words
Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani  

(1934– )Iranian statesman who became president of Iran (1989–97) on the death of Ayatollah Khomeini.Rafsanjani was born near Kerman, the son of a pistachio-nut-farming family of moderate wealth. From ...
Muhammad Khatami

Muhammad Khatami  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(b. 1942)Iranian reformist president. Son of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khatami (d. 1988). Studied religion in Qom and then studied philosophy at Isfahan University and education at Tehran University. Was ...
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad  

(b. Garmsar, Iran, 28 Oct. 1956)Iranian; President of the Islamic Republic of Iran 2005–  The son of a blacksmith, he was born in a village about 90 km outside Tehran. His family moved to Tehran when ...
Ayatollah

Ayatollah  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Sign of God. Honorific title in Twelver Shii Islam. Popularly assigned to outstanding legal scholars. General use of the title appeared in the late Qajar period in Iran. It is not used among Shiis of ...
Ruhollah Khomeini

Ruhollah Khomeini  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1900–89)Iranian Shiite Muslim leader. After 16 years in exile he returned to Iran in 1979 to lead an Islamic revolution which overthrew the shah. He established a fundamentalist Islamic republic, ...
Rafsanjani, Hashemi

Rafsanjani, Hashemi (1934)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
77 words

..., Hashemi ( Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani ) ( 1934 – ) Iranian statesman and cleric , president of Iran ( 1989–97 ). After Ayatollah Khomeini 's triumphant return in 1979 , Rafsanjani became speaker of the Iranian parliament. A leading figure in the new theocracy, he was acting commander of the armed forces in the final stages of the Iran-Iraq War . Following Khomeini's death in 1989 , Rafsanjani became president. His presidency witnessed a slight easing of tension in relations with the...

Rafsanjani, Akbar Hashemi

Rafsanjani, Akbar Hashemi (1934–2017)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
124 words

...Rafsanjani, Akbar Hashemi ( 1934–2017 ) President of Iran between 1989 and 1997 and head of The Assembly of Experts for the Leadership from 2007 to 2011 . Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani grew close to Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in pre-revolutionary Iran and was appointed acting Interior Minister in the immediate aftermath of the Iranian Revolution in 1979 . Rafsanjani served as Speaker of the Iranian Parliament from 1980 to 1989 when he replaced Ali Khamenei as President of Iran. Rafsanjani stepped down as President in 1997 after serving...

Montazeri, Hossein ʿAlī

Montazeri, Hossein ʿAlī (1922–2009)   Reference library

Babak Rahimi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
732 words

...included his outspoken support for his son-in-law, Mehdi Hashemi, who had exposed the role of the chairman of the Iranian parliament, ʿAlī Akbar Hāshimī Rafsanjānī, in the Iran-Contra affair. Also Montazeri's candid criticisms of the state's domestic and foreign policy, especially the execution of political dissidents, contributed to his fall. After Khomeini's death in 1989 Montazeri largely kept a low profile but returned to full public view in 1994 when he issued a letter to Ayatollah ʿAlī Khameneʾi (1939– ), Khomeini's successor. In it he questioned...

Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud

Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
768 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ʿAlī Akbar Hāshemī (Hashimi) Rafsanjānī, and may well have been Supreme Leader Khameneʿi 's preferred candidate to address many of the country 's socioeconomic challenges. Within a year, however, his spending priorities were heavily criticized, as were his recommendations for family planning and petroleum imports. No matter how hard he tried, Iran 's unemployment hovered around 25 percent, which necessitated heavy subsidies on a variety of items. Ahmadinejad proposed a US$1.3 billion fund, called “Reza's Compassion Fund”—named after Īmām ʿAli...

Lebanon Hostage Crisis, UN Role in

Lebanon Hostage Crisis, UN Role in   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,287 words

...for three days, was also released. The month of September was crucial in the release of more hostages, with United Nations officials conducting hectic diplomatic negotiations, especially with Iran and Israel. In Tehran Pérez de Cuéllar met with the Iranian president Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (1934–), among others. Intense talks between UN officials and Israeli negotiators were especially fruitful in facilitating the release of more Lebanese hostages, with Israel agreeing, as a quid pro quo, to free fifty-one Arab prisoners from its Al Khiam jail. They...

Iran

Iran   Reference library

Eric Hooglund

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,203 words

...ultimately undermine the very legitimacy of the Islamic Republic. Nevertheless, The Reformists’ emphasis on programs designed to alleviate immediate economic difficulties had broad appeal between 1989 and the early 2000s. During the presidential administration of Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani ( 1989–1997 ) two social movements emerged: Islamist intellectuals, most prominently Abdolkarim Soroush, began reinterpreting Islamic texts in ways to harmonize them with international conceptions of democracy and human rights; and women self-identifying themselves as...

Iran

Iran   Reference library

Eric Hooglund

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,195 words

...ultimately undermine the very legitimacy of the Islamic Republic. Nevertheless, the Reformists’ emphasis on programs designed to alleviate immediate economic difficulties had broad appeal between 1989 and the early 2000s. During the presidential administration of Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani ( 1989–1997 ), two social movements emerged: Islamist intellectuals, most prominently Abdolkarim Soroush, began reinterpreting Islamic texts in ways that harmonized them with international conceptions of democracy and human rights; and women self-identifying...

Iran

Iran   Reference library

Eric Hooglund

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,192 words

...ultimately undermine the very legitimacy of the Islamic Republic. Nevertheless, the Reformists’ emphasis on programs designed to alleviate immediate economic difficulties had broad appeal between 1989 and the early 2000 s. During the presidential administration of Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani ( 1989 – 1997 ), two social movements emerged: Islamist intellectuals, most prominently Abdolkarim Soroush, began reinterpreting Islamic texts in ways that harmonized them with international conceptions of democracy and human rights; and women self-identifying...

Iran from 1979

Iran from 1979   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,409 words

...International Tribunal on Crimes against Humanity in Iran, a human rights group based in Germany. Amid this controversy and public outrage, journalist Akbar Ganji published a book and several essays alleging that former President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was linked to the murders. Ganji also told a revolutionary court that senior figures of the Islamic Republic, including former Intelligence Minister Ali Fallahian and a senior judge, Gholam-Hossein Mohseni Ejei , were behind these killings. In early December 2000 Nasser Zarafshan , a lawyer for the...

Iran

Iran   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,195 words

...or exposing their hair, arms, or legs. On 3 June 1989 Khomeini died, and the Assembly of Experts surprisingly appointed Ayatollah Ali Khamenei as his successor, with Khomeini's title of leader of the revolution as well as supreme jurist. The choice was unexpected because of Khamenei's relative public inexperience and his recent election to the Assembly of Experts as an ayatollah, or reflection of God. Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani ran successfully for president and served for two four-year terms ( 1989–1997 ) on a liberalization platform of revitalizing the...

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