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Alexandria Eschate

(‘the farthest’), founded close to Cyreschata (mod. Leninabad/Khodjend) on the Syr-Darya (Jaxartes), the largest of seven ‘Achaemenid' fortresses seized by Alexander (3) the Great in this ...

Alexandria (5) Eschate

Alexandria (5) Eschate (‘the farthest’)   Reference library

Pierre Briant

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
51 words

... (5) Eschate (‘the farthest’) , founded close to Cyreschata (mod. Leninabad/Khodjend) on the Syr-Darya ( Jaxartes ), the largest of seven ‘Achaemenid ' fortresses seized by Alexander (3) the Great in this region. Renamed Antioch by Antiochus (1) I . F. L. Holt , Alexander the Great and Bactria (1988), 54–9. Pierre...

Alexandria Eschate

Alexandria Eschate  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(‘the farthest’), founded close to Cyreschata (mod. Leninabad/Khodjend) on the Syr-Darya (Jaxartes), the largest of seven ‘Achaemenid' fortresses seized by Alexander (3) the Great in this region. ...
Jaxartes

Jaxartes   Reference library

Eric Herbert Warmington and Antony J. S. Spawforth

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
110 words

..., Asiatic river (mod. Syr Darya, flowing into the Aral Sea). Though known perhaps to Herodotus (1) by repute, it was discovered by Alexander (3) the Great, who founded Alexandria ( 5 ) Eschate (Khodzhend) on it. The Greeks thought that it flowed into the Caspian (which perhaps was once true— see caspian sea ), and sometimes confused it with the Araxes (now the Aras). Ptolemy ( 4 ) gives geographical details of tribes on its banks. Strabo 11. 507 ff.; Ptol. Geog. 6. 12–14. Thomson , Hist. Anc. Geog. 85, 127 f. S. Sherwin-White and ...

Khojand

Khojand   Reference library

Mark Dickens

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...City on the Jaxartes River, at the entrance of the Farghana Valley. Originally established by the Achaemenids, the city of Alexandria Eschate was later founded nearby. After a period of Hephthalite rule, it came under the Western Türks before the Arab conquests of Central Asia . After an initial truce with the Arabs in 713, the population joined a Sogdian revolt which resulted in the Arab capture of Khojand and slaughter of its populace in 722 ( al-Baladhuri , Futūh al-Buldān , II, 176 and 182), subsequently contributing to the downfall of ...

Khodzhent

Khodzhent   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
635 words

...in the Syr riverbed of an iron helmet belonging to the Shaka nomads (5th–4th century bce ; Khodzhent, Hist. & Reg. Mus.) shows the superb technical skill of contemporary craft. As the easternmost outpost of the empire of Alexander the Great, the city was renamed Alexandria Eschate (“furthest Alexandria”) in 329 bce . Ceramics from the Hellenistic period include plates, dishes and vases based on Greek models and show new techniques of decoration, especially polishing and waxing. Ceramics from the 3rd century bce to the 3rd century ce were decorated with a...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
2,363 words
Illustration(s):
1

...doubted by modern scholarship. Alexandria in Egypt may be the most famous of the Alexandrias, but the majority of them were founded in the East. In some cases, Alexander's city augmented existing cities with Greek and Macedonian settlers, mostly discharged veterans and mercenaries who intermarried and settled alongside the natives. These were cities such as Alexandria Maracanda (Samarkand on the old Silk Road), Alexandria Ariana, and Alexandria Arachosia (modern Herat and Kandahar in Afghanistan). Others, such as Alexandria Eschate—”at the end of the World”...

Central Asia

Central Asia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,154 words
Illustration(s):
1

... bce ) ended Persian sovereignty in this part of Central Asia, and introduced a strong Greek presence by way of thousands of settlers whose purpose, in part, was to isolate and defend the satrapy from nomadic Saka (Scythian) tribes beyond the Jaxartes. The construction of Alexandria-Eschate (“the Furthermost”) on the Jaxartes was one aspect of this grand enterprise. Other Greek foundations, including the excavated site at Ai Khanoum, attest to the resources and manpower required to hold this area in check. Seleucus, one of Alexander's generals and the founder...

Afghanistan and Central Asia

Afghanistan and Central Asia   Reference library

Josep M. Gurt Esparraguera and Verónica Martínez Ferreras

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,560 words

...330–327 BC and became the most important eastern province of the Hellenistic Empire. Numerous cities with evident Greek influences were built after Alexander’s conquest of modern-day Afghanistan, such as Alexandria in Aria (Heart), Alexandropolis in Arachosia (Kandahar), Alexandria of the Caucasus (Begram), and also in Tajikistan, such as Alexandria Eschate (Khojand). At the end of the fourth century BC one of Alexander’s successors, Seleucius I, founded the Seleucid Empire, which spanned from the Aegean coasts of the Mediterranean to North India. Under the...

Alexander

Alexander   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
2,672 words

... performed the feat of taking his army across the snows of the Hindu Kush. He descended into Sogdiana, and eventually captured and killed Bessus. In 328 he reached the furthest north-east boundary of the Persian empire, the river Jaxartes (Syr Darya), and here he founded Alexandria Eschate , ‘the furthest’. Later that year after a violent quarrel at a banquet he killed his lifelong friend Cleitus with one blow, a rash act of which he bitterly repented, retiring to his tent in the manner of Achilles in Homer's Iliad. By early 327 Alexander had overcome the...

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