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Alexandria

The chief port and second‐largest city of Egypt, on the Mediterranean coast, northwest of Cairo. Founded in 332 bc by Alexander the Great, after whom it is named, it became a major centre ...

Alexandria

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
395 words

...to Alexandria a place of honour second only to Rome, and superior to Antioch , but its importance was diminished by the rise of Constantinople , which was granted precedence over Alexandria by the Councils of Constantinople ( 381 ) and Chalcedon ( 451 ). The great majority of Christians in Egypt supported the Monophysite schisms, and by the time Egypt passed under the Persians ( 616 ) and then under the Arabs ( 642 ), the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria had lost most of its influence. At the division between E. and W. Alexandria remained...

Alexandria

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... The main seaport and second largest city in Egypt, founded in 332 bc at the mouth of the nile by alexander the great . Its Arabic name is al-Iskandariyah. See also pharos . Alexandrian Anything from the East was so called by the old writers because Alexandria was the depot from which Eastern goods reached Europe. Thus ariosto says: Reclined on Alexandrian [i.e. Persian] carpets. Alexandrian codex A Greek manuscript of the Scriptures, probably of the 5th century ad , written in uncials on parchment and said to have originated at ...

Alexandria

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
124 words

... . An important city in the Roman Empire, Alexandria in Egypt was a centre of both Hellenism and Judaism. The foundation of the Church is traditionally ascribed to St Mark . It won fame as a centre of Christian thought through the work of Clement and Origen . Its ecclesiastical importance increased in the 4th and 5th cents., especially under its bishops Athanasius and Cyril . It was later diminished by the rise of Constantinople , further reduced by the adherence of most Egyptian Christians to the Monophysites , and virtually destroyed by the...

Alexandria

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Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
373 words

... . Though widely considered a center for learning in antiquity, Alexandria, Egypt, had become a shadow of its ancient self by the opening of the nineteenth century. In April 1817 Muhammad ῾Ali Pasha , the Ottoman governor, quickly expanded Alexandria by constructing the Mahmudiya Canal, which connected the port city to the western branches of the Nile Delta. The forty-seven-mile (seventy-five-kilometer) project involved 300,000 laborers, costing the government 7.5 million French francs and the deaths of 12,000 workers. In 1828 Muhammad ῾Ali...

Alexandria

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A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
86 words

... A city in * Egypt near the delta of the * Nile with a population of a million in the 1st cent. ce , including a large Jewish area. * Philo is the best-known Jewish scholar of the city. It is not known who established a Christian Church in the city (a legend attributes it to Mark) but Acts 18: 24 mentions that it had been the birthplace of * Apollos . Possibly the letter to the Hebrews was written from Alexandria; there are similarities in outlook and attitude to...

Alexandria

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
649 words

... The port of Alexandria is the principal port of Egypt and handles over three quarters of the country’s foreign trade. It is located on the western extremity of the Nile River delta on the north coast of Egypt . Situated approximately 200 kilometers (124 miles) from Cairo , the port is separated into two harbors: the Eastern Port and the Western Port, which are divided by a T-shaped peninsula. Although fishing vessels may use both harbors, large commercial shipping is confined to the west harbor. The main goods exported from the port of Alexandria...

Alexandria

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Christopher Haas and Rebecca Darley

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...(1951), 103–8. C. Haas , Alexandria in Late Antiquity: Topography and Social Conflict (1997). W. V. Harris and G. Ruffini , eds., Ancient Alexandria between Egypt and Greece (2004). G. Hinge and J. A. Krasilnikoff , eds., Alexandria: A Cultural and Religious Melting Pot (2009). A. Hirst and M. S. Silk , eds., Alexandria, Real and Imagined (2004). Z. Kiss , ‘Alexandria in the Fourth to Seventh Centuries’, in R. S. Bagnall , ed., Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300–700 (2007), 187–206. McKenzie , Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt. Coins DOC ...

Alexandria

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Dominic W. Rathbone

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
546 words
Illustration(s):
1

...) and medicine . In the 3rd cent. ad the reputed see of St Mark the evangelist became one of the main centres of the Christian church, revitalizing Alexandria’s claims to intellectual, artistic, political, and economic prominence within and beyond Egypt. Dominic W. Rathbone Alexandria A late-antique school at Alexandria. The lecturer’s seat is visible at the centre of the U-shaped lecture-hall. Alexandria retained its eminence as an intellectual centre throughout Roman times. A. K. Bowman ...

Alexandria

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
860 words
Illustration(s):
1

... (4.354–5) referring to Pharos, an island off the coast of Alexandria. Alexander and his men, lacking chalk, used barley to lay out the city walls. Birds began to eat the grain, a sign Alexander's soothsayers interpreted to mean that the city would be productive and would nurture many men (Plutarch Life of Alexander 26.5–6). Geography had a major role in Alexandria's success. The city's location at the Nile's mouth, between the coast and Lake Mareotis, made Alexandria an ideal port. Under the Ptolemies, the island of Pharos was joined to the mainland by a...

Alexandria

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
41 words

... . City in Egypt, notable in Christian tradition (stemming, traditionally, from St Mark ) for its catechetical school in the 2nd and 3rd cents. and in the 4th and 5th cents. especially for the ‘Alexandrian theology’ represented by Origen , Athanasius , and Cyril...

Alexandria

Alexandria (1)   Reference library

Dominic W. Rathbone

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
567 words

...in Egypt, could acquire Roman citizenship . Despite several appeals to the Julio-Claudian emperors, Alexandria only regained a boulē in ad 200 / 1 when Septimius Severus granted councils to all the cities of Egypt; this development, and the universal grant of Roman citizenship in ad 212 , undermined Alexandria's political primacy in Egypt, but not her Mediterranean-wide economic and cultural importance. With over 500,000 inhabitants, Alexandria was the second city of the Roman empire; it was also the main port of the eastern Mediterranean for state...

Alexandria

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
105 words

... Chief port and second largest city of Egypt, situated on the w extremity of the Nile delta. Founded by Alexander the Great in 332 bc it became a great centre of Greek (and Jewish) culture. An offshore island housed the 3rd-century bc Pharos lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonders of the World , and the city contained a great library (founded by Ptolemy I , and said to contain 700,000 volumes). Today, it is a deep-water port handling more than 75% of Egypt's trade. Alexandria is the Middle East headquarters for the World Health Organization (...

Alexandria

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
434 words

...in Egypt, could acquire Roman citizenship . Despite several appeals to the Julio‐Claudian emperors, Alexandria regained a council only in ad 200/1 when Septimius Severus granted councils to all the major cities of Egypt; this development, and the universal grant of Roman citizenship in 212 , undermined Alexandria's political primacy in Egypt, but not her Mediterranean‐wide economic and cultural importance. With over 500,000 inhabitants, Alexandria was the second city of the Roman empire; it was also the main port of the eastern Mediterranean for state...

Alexandria

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,656 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of Alexandria's tomb complexes, comprising part of a report of the Sieglin expedition. Swelim, Nabil , ed. Alexandrian Studies in Memoriam Daoud Abdu Daoud . Alexandria, 1993. Collection of essays on the history, topography, archaeology, and art of ancient Alexandria. Tkaczow, Barbara . “Archaeological Sources for the Earliest Churches in Alexandria.” In Coptic Studies: Acts of the Third International Congress of Coptic Studies, Warsaw, 20–25 August 1984 , edited by Wlodzimierz Godlewski , pp. 431–435. Warsaw, 1990. Contains a discussion of Alexandria's...

Alexandria

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
715 words

.... For some time Alexandria kept its former privileges, such as that of having a particular government (often Christian) called, as in the time of the Byzantine regime, augustalios , alongside a purely military governor, delegated by the central authority at al-Fusṭāṭ; but, and this shows clearly that Alexandria was no longer the capital, control of the whole country belonged to al-Fusṭāṭ alone. At the start of the Arab period Alexandria was called a “frontier town” and, as such, had its own status, which continued to increase as Alexandria became the sole...

Alexandria

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Robert Steven Bianchi

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
455 words

...of Ptolemy I Soter and his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus, both of whom may have jointly founded the Museion, within which was the Great Library. During the reign of the latter, the famous lighthouse (the Pharos of Alexandria , one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world) was erected. The body of Alexander the Great was moved from Memphis to Alexandria for burial, then subsequently reburied by Ptolemy IV Philopator. Of the ancient city, very little remains today. The sites of the royal palaces, the Great Library, and the tomb of Alexander the Great have yet to be...

Alexandria

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The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
618 words

... (charity workers) and varied trades and professions. The mint of Alexandria was revived by Emp. Justin II . Alexandria was briefly occupied by the Sasanians between 618 and 628/9 (L. MacCoull, Studi classici e orientali 36 [ 1986 ] 307–13); it fell to the Arabs under ʿAmr in 642 (Butler, infra , lxxii–lxxvi), was briefly retaken by the Byz. in 645 but immediately recaptured by the Arabs; a second Byz. attempt at recovery in 652 proved unsuccessful. Monuments of Alexandria Almost no Byz. monuments have survived. Only the names and a few...

Alexandria

Alexandria (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, Jamaica, Romania, South Africa, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...as Olifantshoek, ‘Elephants’ Corner’ because of their numbers here, it was renamed in 1973 after Alexander Smith , a minister in the Dutch Reformed Church in the 1820s. 4. USA: there are at least eleven towns called Alexandria, usually named after individuals associated with their original development. For example, the Alexandria in Virginia is named after a Scotsman, John Alexander , who bought the land from an English ship captain in 1669 ; a settlement was constructed in 1731 and named Belhaven, but this was renamed when it became a town in ...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
82 words

... (Arabic El Iskandarîya ) The chief port and second‐largest city of Egypt, on the Mediterranean coast, northwest of Cairo. Founded in 332 bc by Alexander the Great, after whom it is named, it became a major centre of Hellenistic and Jewish culture, with renowned libraries, and was the capital city until the Arab invasions c .641 ad . On an island off the coast was the Pharos lighthouse (3rd century bc ), often considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World....

Alexandria

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
885 words

... [The history and culture of Alexandria in the Islamic period] (Cairo, 1962) J. al-Shayyāl : Ta῾rīkh madīnat al-iskandariyya fī ῾as al-islāmī [The history of the city of Alexandria in the Islamic period] (Alexandria, 1967) W. Kubiak : “ Stèles funéraires arabes de Kom el Dick, ” Bull. Soc. Archéol. Alexandrie (1967), xlii, pp. 17–26; xliii (1975), pp. 133–42; xlvii (1975) E. Promińska : Investigations on the Population of Muslim Alexandria (Warsaw, 1972) W. B. Kubiak : “ Pre-Muslim Network of Streets in Medieval Alexandria, ” Afryka, Azja, Ameryka...

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