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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
12 words

... the Great ( see facing page...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323bce)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
73 words

... the Great ( 356–323 bce ) King of Macedon from 336 who conquered the Persian Empire. * Greek culture then permeated the Mediterranean region and Greek became the international language, leading to the Greek translation of the OT ( * LXX ), and the writing of the NT, and the early Christian liturgies, in Greek. The Seleucid dynasty derived from Alexander (from 275 bce ), which explains the interest in Alexander shown in 1 Macc. 1:...

Alexander the great

Alexander the great (356–323 bc)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
85 words

... the great ( 356–323 bc ) The most famous general in the classical world. Alexander was made the centre of a cluster of medieval legends, comparable to the cycles concerning Charlemagne and King Arthur . The chief romances concerning him are the great French Roman d'Alexandre of the 12th century and the English King Alisaunder of the early 14th century. The story of the rivalry of his two wives forms the subject of Nathaniel Lee 's tragedy The Rival Queens...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
681 words

...shapes and were embellished with updated versions of the elaborate figures and florals of later 5th-century bc Attic pottery. Thanks to Alexander , this Macedonian decorative art came to dominate Hellenistic culture from Egypt to Afghanistan . W. W. Tarn : Alexander the Great (Cambridge, 1948/ R 1979) J. R. Hamilton : Alexander the Great (London, 1973/ R Pittsburgh, 1979) M. Andronikos and others: The Search for Alexander: An Exhibition (Boston, 1980) R. Lane Fox : The Search for Alexander (Boston, 1980) B. Barr-Sharrarr and E. N. Borza ,...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... the Great . Alexander lived from 356 to 323 b.c.e. and ruled from 336. In the Middle East he generally is known as Alexander the Macedonian. He conquered the Persian Achaemenid Empire and introduced Hellenism throughout the region, but his influence in the East derives not from his conquests but from his relation to Aristotle and his superhuman qualities. After Alexander 's death many stories—some fabulous—circulated about him. Known collectively as the Alexander romance, they were translated into many languages in many versions. Before the coming of...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323)   Reference library

Stanley M. BURSTEIN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
980 words

...Alexander the Great ( 356–323 bce ) King of Macedonia The thirteen-year reign ( 336–323 bce ) of Alexander III of Macedon fundamentally changed the political and cultural structure of ancient southwestern Asia. The Persian Empire, which had ruled the vast region from the Mediterranean to the borders of India, disappeared in 330 bce as the result of Alexander’s conquests, replaced by a new multistate system dominated by Macedonians and Greeks. The region’s center of gravity shifted westward from its ancient focus in Mesopotamia and southwestern...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (334)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
55 words

...Alexander the Great (d. 334 B.C.E. ) Arabic al-Iskandar . Conqueror of Egypt and the Persian Achaemenid Empire and founder of cities. Often identified with Dhu al-Qarnayn, “the two-horned” of the Quran ( 18:83–94 ), who figures prominently in Muslim eschatology by serving the cause of the righteous. Considered a Muslim believer and by some a...

Alexander the Great

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The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
2,363 words
Illustration(s):
1

... the Great This entry contains two subentries: Fact ; Fiction Fact Alexander was born in Macedonia, in northern Greece, in the summer of 356 b.c.e. Word came to Philip II , king of Macedonia, that his queen, Olympias , had given birth to a son at the same time that word came that his horses had won the premier chariot race at the Olympics. It would not be the last time that such omens attended Alexander. When Alexander was thirteen, his father brought the philosopher Aristotle to Macedonia to tutor Alexander, and from him Alexander developed an...

Alexander ‘the Great’

Alexander ‘the Great’ (336–323 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... ‘the Great’ ( 336–323 bc ), son of Philip II and king of Macedon, was the greatest military commander of the ancient world; his achievements inspired envy and imitation from Roman generals such as Pompey , Caesar , and Trajan , and achieved legendary status in the Christian and Islamic worlds through the Romance of Alexander . The main surviving sources were written between 300 and 500 years after Alexander's death by the Greek authors Plutarch , who wrote a biography and also wrote two encomiastic essays; Arrian, whose history focuses on...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,339 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Waldemar . Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great: Prosopography of Alexander's Empire . Oxford: Blackwell, 2006. Holt, Frank L. Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. Holt, Frank L. Into the Land of Bones: Alexander the Great in Afghanistan . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. Lendering, Jona . Alexander de Grote: De ondergang van het Perzische rijk . Amsterdam: Athenaeum: Polak and Van Gennep, 2004. Tarn, William W. Alexander the Great . 2 vols. Cambridge,...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...king. The grateful Gordius thanked the people and honored Zeus in the temple square by dedicating his vehicle to the god and tying its pole to its yoke by means of a complex knot. An oracle claimed that the one who could untie that knot would rule in Asia . When Alexander came to Phrygia, he cut the knot with his sword and proclaimed himself the conqueror named by the oracle. When in 331 he made a pilgrimage to a great temple of the god Amon-Ra in Egypt — a god the Greeks thought of as a version of Zeus—he decided that, like the old Egyptian...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
107 words

... the Great [Na] Leader of the Macedonians . Born in 356 bc , Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of Greece in 336 bc . Early in his reign he set about releasing the Greeks from Persian domination, but continued his campaigns into a programme of imperialist aggrandizement that eventually created a massive, albeit short‐lived, empire from India to Egypt. After his death from fever in 323 bc his hastily constructed dominion fell apart, the most lasting...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323 bc)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
135 words

... the Great ( 356–323 bc ) King of Macedonia ( 336–323 bc ), considered the greatest conqueror of classical times. Son of Philip II of Macedonia and tutored by Aristotle , Alexander rapidly consolidated Macedonian power in Greece. In 334 bc he began his destruction of the vast Achaemenid Persian Empire, conquering w Asia Minor and storming Tyre in 332 bc . He subdued Egypt and occupied Babylon, marching n in 330 bc to Media, and then conquering central Asia in 328 bc . In 327 bc Alexander invaded India but the threat of mutiny...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323)   Reference library

Albert Brian Bosworth

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,434 words
Illustration(s):
1

...south the kingdoms of Sambus and Musicanus were visited with fire and slaughter when their allegiance wavered, and, as he approached his base in the Indus delta (Patalene), the natives fled in terror (July 325). 7. Alexander now returned to the west, deputing Nearchus to take his fleet across the southern coastline while he led the main army through the Gedrosian desert (Makran), in emulation—so Nearchus claimed—of Cyrus the Great and Semiramis. The horrors of heat and famine which ensued were considerable, but perhaps exaggerated in the sources,...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
188 words

...at the instance of the courtesan Thaïs; his wives Roxana and Barsine were both Persian. He died of fever at Babylon when only 32 years old. Alexander was made the centre of a cluster of medieval legends, comparable to the cycles concerning Charlemagne and King Arthur . The chief romances concerning him are the great French Roman d'Alexandre of the 12th century and the English King Alisaunder of the early 14th century. The story of the rivalry of his two wives forms the subject of Nathaniel Lee 's tragedy The Rival Queens . ...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Quick reference

Albert Brian Bosworth

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,409 words

...submission, and Alexander's impetuousness cost him a debilitating chest wound. Further south the kingdoms of Sambus and Musicanus were visited with fire and slaughter when their allegiance wavered, and, as he approached his base in the Indus delta (Patalene), the natives fled in terror ( July 325 ). 7. Alexander now returned to the west, deputing Nearchus to take his fleet across the southern coastline while he led the main army through the Gedrosian desert (Makran), in emulation—so Nearchus claimed—of Cyrus the Great and Semiramis. The horrors of heat and...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323 bc)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
124 words

...001the0Great Alexander the Great 356 – 323 bc Greek monarch , King of Macedon from 336 bc . See also diogenes If I were not Alexander, I would be Diogenes. Plutarch Parallel Lives ‘Alexander’ ch. 14, sect. 3 not Alexander would be Diogenes Is it not worthy of tears that, when the number of worlds is infinite, we have not yet become lords of a single one? when asked why he wept on hearing from Anaxarchus that there was an infinite number of worlds Plutarch Moralia ‘On Tranquillity of the Mind’; see watts number of worlds is...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323 bc)   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
119 words

...00theGreat Alexander the Great 356 – 323 bc Greek monarch , King of Macedon from 336 bc If I were not Alexander, I would be Diogenes. Plutarch Parallel Lives ‘Alexander’ ch. 14, sect. 3 not Alexander would be Diogenes Is it not worthy of tears that, when the number of worlds is infinite, we have not yet become lords of a single one? when asked why he wept on hearing from Anaxarchus that there was an infinite number of worlds Plutarch Moralia ‘On Tranquillity of the Mind’ number of worlds is infinite number of worlds is infinite I am...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356323 )   Reference library

Brewer's Famous Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
283 words

...Alexander the Great 356 323 King of Macedonia I am dying with the help of too many physicians. Last words, attributed in The Treasury of Humorous Quotations , eds Esar & Bentley (1951); and earlier, in the form ‘I die by the help of too many physicians’, in H.L. Mencken's Dictionary of Quotations (1942). No other evidence has been found to support this attribution. The idea, however, surfaces elsewhere in the classical world. The dying Emperor Hadrian ( ad 76–138) apparently came out with ‘the popular saying “many physicians have slain a king”’...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323 BCE), king of Macedon (336–323 BCE).   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,405 words

...BCE, Alexander campaigned throughout the territories of the Persian Empire from Egypt in the west to northern India in the east. The campaign can be divided into three phases. The first, which lasted from 334 BCE to 330 BCE, is known to historians as the “Greek Crusade” and was marked by the great set battles of Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela. It climaxed with the destruction of the Persian capital of Persepolis and the assassination of the Persian king Darius III by his own officers. The second phase, which lasted from 330 BCE to 327 BCE, saw Alexander adopt...

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