## Turing, Alan (1912–54) Reference library

### The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

..., Alan ( 1912–54 ). English mathematician best known for the Turing machine and the Turing test, both concerned with the relation between computation and mind. Turing's work in mathematical logic in the late 1930s systematized ideas of Gödel and Church in the form of an abstract description of what an idealized finite agent could compute. During the Second World War Turing worked on deciphering German codes, and in particular on the computational machinery required. After the war he worked on early digital computers and in 1950 published ‘Computing...

## Turing, Alan (1912–1954) Reference library

### Encyclopedia of Semiotics

... et al. New York: Chelsea Publishing, 1950. Hodges, A. Alan Turing: The Enigma . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983. Turing, A. “ On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem. ” Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , series 2, 42 (1936): 230–265. Turing, A. “ Computing Machinery and Intelligence. ” Mind 69.2236 (October 1950): 433–460. This article is reprinted in M. Boden, The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990). Turing, A. “ The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis. ” ...

## Turing, Alan (1912–1954) Reference library

### The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

...1954 , while actively investigating the mathematical growth patterns of plants, Turing died, almost certainly by suicide. The ever-escalating importance of computers, changed attitudes towards sexuality, and reappraisals of military history presage that Turing's status as a cult hero will undoubtedly increase. Andrew Hodges , Alan Turing: The Enigma (1983). Martin Campbell-Kelly and William Aspray , Computer: A History of the Information Machine (1996). Andrew Hodges , Turing: A Natural Philosopher (1997). Gordon Welchman , The Hut Six Story: Breaking...

## Alan Turing (1912–54) Reference library

### Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

...0Alan Alan Turing 1912 – 54 English mathematician and codebreaker We are not interested in the fact that the brain has the consistency of cold porridge. A. P. Hodges Alan Turing: the Enigma (1983) brain has the consistency consistency of cold ...

## Alan Turing (1912–54) Quick reference

### Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

...0Alan Alan Turing 1912 – 54 English mathematician and codebreaker If a machine is expected to be infallible, it cannot also be intelligent. lecture, the London Mathematical Society, 20 February...

## Alan Turing (1912–54) Reference library

### Oxford Dictionary of Modern Quotations (3 ed.)

...0Alan Alan Turing 1912 – 54 English mathematician . He developed the concept of a theoretical computing machine, a key step in the development of the first computer, and carried out important code-breaking work in the Second World War. He also investigated artificial intelligence We are not interested in the fact that the brain has the consistency of cold porridge. A. P. Hodges Alan Turing: the Enigma (1983) brain has the consistency consistency of cold ...

## Turing, Alan (1912–54) Reference library

### The Oxford Companion to World War II

..., Alan ( 1912–54 ), British mathematician whose theories, and work at the British government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park , resulted in the modern computer. With another mathematician, Gordon Welchman , he developed a British ‘bombe’, the name the Poles gave to their machines for deciphering early ENIGMA signals that produced ULTRA intelligence. He led the deciphering of German naval ENIGMA signals, so vital during the battle of the Atlantic , and was involved in breaking the Geheimschreiber transmissions. But he was a solitary,...

## Turing, Alan Mathison (1912–54) Quick reference

### World Encyclopedia

..., Alan Mathison ( 1912–54 ) English mathematician . In 1937 , he invented the Turing machine , a hypothetical machine that could modify a set of input instructions. It was the forerunner of the modern computer . During World War 2, Turing played a major role in deciphering the German ‘Enigma’ code. In 1950 , he devised the Turing test , which paved the way for the foundation of artificial intelligence ( AI ). He committed suicide after being prosecuted for...

## Turing, Alan Mathison (1912–54) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

..., Alan Mathison ( 1912–54 ; b. London, England ; d. Wilmslow, England ) English mathematician . Turing graduated from Cambridge U in 1934 . The following year he was elected to a Fellowship at King's College, Cambridge as a consequence of his novel proof of the central limit theorem . In 1936 he introduced the concept of a Turing machine . In 1938 he obtained his PhD from Princeton U. During the Second World War he was involved in the breaking of the German codes produced by the Enigma machine. After the war he held posts at Cambridge U and...

## Turing, Alan Mathison (1912–54) Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

..., Alan Mathison ( 1912–54 ) British mathematician and logician who conceived the notion of the Turing machine . During the Second World War, he was involved in cryptanalysis, the breaking of codes, and afterwards worked on the construction of some of the early digital computers and the development of their programming...

## Turing, Alan (Mathison) (1912–54) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

..., Alan (Mathison) ( 1912–54 ) British mathematician , a father of computer science. A fellow of King’s College, Cambridge from 1935 , in 1936 he wrote his seminal paper ‘On Computable Numbers’ ( 1936 ), which introduced the Turing Machine as an aid to a precise definition of the concept of the algorithm . During World War II Turing worked at the British government’s code-breaking centre at Bletchley Park. He was instrumental in breaking the German Enigma codes, designing an electromechanical machine to assist this process. After the war he worked...

## Turing, Alan Mathison (1912–54) Reference library

### The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

..., Alan Mathison ( 1912–54 ) Alan Mathison Turing was born in London on 23 June 1912 and died tragically in Wilmslow, near Manchester on 7 June 1954 . Turing was a son of the British Empire. His father served in the Indian Civil Service while Turing and his brother John remained in England, raised by strangers and eventually sent to board at ‘public’ schools (for Alan, Sherborne). He saw his parents infrequently, when they made the lengthy trip back from India. Turing gave early signs both of genius and a rather peculiar personality. He taught himself...

## Turing, Alan Mathison (1912–1954) Quick reference

### Who's Who in the Twentieth Century

..., Alan Mathison ( 1912–1954 ) British mathematician, who introduced the concept of the Turing machine. Born in London, he was educated at King's College, Cambridge, where he was elected to a fellowship in 1936 . In the following year he published On Computable Numbers , a work that quickly gained him a worldwide reputation and introduced into mathematics the notion of a Turing machine. Turing's work derived from the 23rd problem posed (in 1900 ) by David Hilbert , i.e. how to decide whether the propositions of predicate logic are true or false – the ...

## Turing, Alan Mathison (1912–54) Reference library

### The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

...his remarkable powers, as mathematician, biologist, and supreme creative philosopher of computing by machine and brain. (Published 1987) Richard L. Gregory Feigenbaum, E. A. , and Feldman, J. (1963). Computers and Thought . (Contains a reprint of Turing's Imitation Game paper.) Hodges, A. (2000). Alan Turing: The Enigma . (Foreword by Douglas Hofstadter). Von Neumann, J. (1958). The Computer and the Brain...

## Turing, Alan Mathison Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Scientists

..., Alan Mathison (1912–1954) British mathematician Turing , who was born in London, saw little of his parents in his early years. His father served in the Indian Civil Service before retiring in 1926 ; thereafter they lived in France to eke out a small pension. Turing was educated at Cambridge University, where he gained a fellowship at King's College in 1935 . He spent the period from 1936 to 1938 at Princeton. During this time he published one of the most significant mathematical papers of the century, On Computable Numbers ( 1937 ). He began by...

## Alan Mathison Turing (1912–54) Reference library

*Francis Crick*

### Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations

...Alan Mathison Turing 1912 – 54 British mathematician The automatic computing engine now being designed at N. P. L. [National Physics Laboratory] is a typical large scale electronic digital computing machine. In a single lecture it will not be possible to give much technical detail of this machine, and most of what I shall say will apply equally to any other machine of this type now being planned. From the point of view of the mathematician the property of being digital should be of greater interest than that of being electronic. That it is electronic...

## Turing, Alan Mathison (1912–54) Reference library

### The New Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors (2 ed.)

..., Alan Mathison ( 1912–54 ) British mathematician . Turing...