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Agricultural Rents

When all the technicalities involving the economists' definitions are removed, agricultural rent seemingly becomes an easy and practical concept to understand. It is the contract that one ...

Agricultural Rents

Agricultural Rents   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,074 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of leases was reduced. The conversion to annual rack-rent tenancies meant that rents more closely shadowed agricultural prices. That is, they rose when prices rose, though they were sticky on the downturn and did not immediately follow price falls. This stickiness came to a head when agriculture experienced a depression in the 1820s and especially in the 1830s. Tenants were generally permitted rent abatements, rent holidays, or remissions, before the landlord turned, as a last resort, to actual rent reductions. In time landlords and tenants alike became...

Agricultural Rents

Agricultural Rents  

Reference type:
Overview Page
When all the technicalities involving the economists' definitions are removed, agricultural rent seemingly becomes an easy and practical concept to understand. It is the contract that one person had ...
Rent (Agriculture) Act 1976

Rent (Agriculture) Act 1976   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Agriculture and Land Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
477 words

... (Agriculture) Act 1976 Legislation protecting qualifying agricultural workers in England and Wales where their occupation of a dwelling house began before 15 January 1989 and who would otherwise fall outside the protection of the Rent Act 1977 because their occupation does not comply with the minimum rent threshold existing under the Rent Act 1977 (being at a very low, or no, rent). In order for the Rent (Agriculture) Act 1976 to apply, the agricultural worker (the protected occupier ) must meet qualifying criteria in the legislation; for example,...

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...prospered as well, including the government-sponsored Board of Agriculture, established in 1793 . The significance of these alterations to the land and physical environment can be measured not only by increases in productivity but also by the way in which modifications to the terrain altered ideas about geography as well as the patterns of everyday lives. For example, the agricultural organizations which fostered improvement became messengers for an increasingly national agricultural market, particularly during the French wars. This in turn gave ever...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...distribution of its results between rent, profits, and wages that Ricardo had originally formulated as part of his case for the gradual withdrawal of agricultural protection in the corn law debates of 1814–15 . It embodied a theory of rent derived from the law of diminishing returns, but in contrast with Malthus's more harmonistic formulation of this theory it underlined the conclusion that land-rent was a form of monopoly return or transfer payment by the community at large to the owners of a scarce resource, with rents rising when the price of food rose,...

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...also has its boundaries delineated, it follows that farm layout and fragmentation can be studied. Also of great importance is the study of tenure, the extent of freehold ownership , leasehold and copyhold details , rents, and lengths of tenure. There is much information on housing. The numbers and uses of rooms, house rents, sanitation and water supply, information on building materials, and details of stabling, pigsties, and other buildings, repair and general condition, etc. should all be present, facilitating studies of living conditions prior...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by renting them decent cottages with gardens or allotments became increasingly common after 1815 . Legislation supported allotment schemes which were most commonly implemented in southern English counties, where rural poverty was acute and poor rates high. At a time of postwar social dislocation, advocates depicted a self-sufficient and well-managed poor, and promoted a grander scheme of social harmony established in a particular view of marriage and of relations between landlord and labourer. From the late eighteenth century, agricultural labourers...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...estate (however geographically fragmented such a holding might be). The customary obligations owed by tenants included renders to the lord (from food rents to cash rents in lieu eventually) and the performance of detailed labour services, some of both of which, long before their transferral, had been owed to the king, others being retained by him for purposes of national defence (see N. Neilson , ‘Customary Rents’, in Paul Vinogradoff (ed.), Oxford Studies in Social and Legal History , ii (1910) ; Rosamond Faith , The English Peasantry and the Growth of...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...land, more markets, and a commercialized economy. Kings and lords realized that trade was profitable, and were generally quick to sponsor town growth, granting markets and fairs , and equipping townsmen with burgage tenure, which meant that they held their properties by rent only (without any of the servile labour obligations of the countryside), and with the right to bequeath them freely to their children or other heirs. New towns were established by kings and private lords, whether grafted onto existing villages or laid out on virgin sites: M. W....

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in England. During later childhood, from 6 or 8 onwards, girls and boys increasingly helped to earn their keep in domestic industry and on the farm, as they were drawn into spinning , knitting , and the lighter agricultural tasks. But longer‐term provision for increasing numbers of surviving children was a costly business for parents squeezed by rent and price increases. The more successful landholders, traders, and professional people were able to raise cash portions to pay their daughters’ dowries and educate their younger sons for a business or professional...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...View of Gibraltar during the Destruction of the Spanish Floating Batteries . Yet the rewards could be substantial. In one of the more successful of such events John Singleton Copley ( 1737–1815 ), an American artist who had settled in London and become an Academician in 1779 , rented a large room in the Haymarket to exhibit The Death of Major Peirson for two months in 1784 . The painting had been commissioned by the print-publisher John *Boydell , for the large sum of £800, and Copley, charging a shilling a ticket and flagging his show in the London...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...with a British or American firm. Under the agency system—which prevailed through much of the 20 th century—Canadian houses were named exclusive agents for foreign publishers. In some instances they distributed bound books, in others they imported printed sheets, or bought or rented stereotype *plate s for a Canadian issue, possibly under a local imprint. As the trade developed, foreign firms opened branches in Toronto: *Oxford University Press came in 1904 ; *Macmillan opened in 1906 . Young entrepreneurs, such as the founders of *McClelland &...

Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as late as 1859 the number of woollen weavers who were outworkers equalled that of the men who worked at powerlooms in factories. However, the great rise in the national population meant that the domestic weavers were increasingly wage‐earners with no land, whose cottages were rented from the manufacturers. By 1850 the West Riding had 880 woollen mills, and steam engines rather than water wheels were now the major source of power. During the long reign of Queen Victoria, the ancient link between home and place of work was broken. The uneven pace of change...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...when the immediate social problems disappeared and government turned its attention to more pressing matters. After the Civil War even this limited activism ceased. The majority of the government's employees were concerned with the collection of revenue as customs officials , rent collectors, or excise men. For the early modern period, it is impossible to produce accurate figures of how large the central establishment was, for much government work was carried out not by its own salaried officers but by clerks and deputies employed by them, and paid out of...

Farm Management

Farm Management  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Two issues fall under the heading of farm management. First, who did the organization of production in agriculture? Was it peasant families, commercial tenants under fixed-rent tenancies, or estate ...
agricultural holding

agricultural holding  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A tenancy of agricultural land under the Agricultural Holdings Act 1986. Tenants have special statutory protection and there is a procedure to fix rent by arbitration if the parties cannot agree. The ...
conacre

conacre  

Land rented for the taking of a single crop, most commonly of potatoes. Conacre was taken by tradesmen, by small farmers, and most commonly by agricultural labourers, who invested all ...
Morte

Morte  

(μορτή, lit. “portion”), a term denoting the (usually) in-kind rent paid by a peasant on agricultural land belonging to the state or to a private landowner. The land leased was ...
notice to quit

notice to quit  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The formal notification from a landlord to a tenant (or vice versa) terminating the tenancy on a specified date. The notice must be clear and unambiguous and it must terminate the tenancy in relation ...
improvement

improvement  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
N.(of rented premises) An addition or alteration that improves the premises from the tenant's point of view; it does not necessarily have to increase the value of the premises. In the case of a lease ...

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