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Overview

Agricultural Marketing

This entry contains three subentries, overviews of regional and international trade, and a discussion of agricultural marketing boards. The marketing of agricultural produce ...

Agricultural Marketing

Agricultural Marketing   Reference library

H. Britnell Richard, Anderson Kym, and Perren Richard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
6,039 words

...Agricultural Marketing This entry contains three subentries, overviews of regional and international trade , and a discussion of agricultural marketing boards . Regional Trade The marketing of agricultural produce probably goes back to the earliest days of agriculture, when Neolithic settlements were established near foraging tribes. Such patterns of interdependence are still found, as for example in the relationship between the Mbuti pygmies of the Congo region and their horticultural Bantu neighbors or between the Agta of the Philippines, who specialize...

Agricultural Marketing

Agricultural Marketing  

Reference type:
Overview Page
This entry contains three subentries, overviews of regional and international trade, and a discussion of agricultural marketing boards.The marketing of agricultural produce probably goes back to the ...
Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is now seen as having been facilitated by the development of more sophisticated marketing methods and structures and by improvements in transport. An apt illustration is the rapid growth of market gardening during the 17th century, especially in the vicinity of London, which provided ready sales and supplies of manures ; many of the new crops which eventually transformed farming practices were introduced in this way. During the 17th and 18th centuries England became agriculturally the most advanced country in Europe. It remained largely self‐sufficient in...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...century prior to 1850 witnessed an overwhelming transformation of social life in both industry and agriculture. For example, the view that the industrial revolution was paralleled by an *agricultural revolution which brought about radical changes in techniques, organization, and social relations over a relatively brief period of time has been so heavily qualified that it can no longer be sustained. The gradual and long-term nature of change in agriculture and rural life is now well recognized. Moreover, many of the social changes traditionally associated...

Human History as Divine Revelation: A Dialogue

Human History as Divine Revelation: A Dialogue   Reference library

Mazrui Ali A.

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,939 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...evidence that God reveals Himself in installments. On Science and Retardation Allah has blessed the Muslim world with plenty of petroleum. But how many large Muslim oil companies do you know which are capable of independently drilling for oil, processing it, refining it and marketing it world wide? Where are the Muslim technological and organizational skills? In the last three centuries how many scientific inventions or discoveries are we able to attribute to Muslims? Islamic science flourished when Muslims were prepared to learn from others—such as learning...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

Cristina Dondi

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,151 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a printing office. Moreover, printing required capital investment, principally for the purchase of paper. In addition, it generally required some knowledge of the subject to be printed, to help in the selection and correction of what was printed. Finally, printing called for marketing knowledge: although texts were initially produced with an ideal customer in mind, in order to be profitable a diverse range of buyers had to be reached. In sum, what distinguishes the production of printed books from that of MSS is the necessary collaboration of individuals,...

21 The History of the Book in Ireland

21 The History of the Book in Ireland   Reference library

Niall Ó Ciosáin and Clare Hutton

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,023 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...market was local and not dependent on reprints, the effect of Union was not felt very strongly; indeed, printing and publishing in places such as Cork, Limerick, and Belfast was at its height in the decades after 1810 . Belfast was the home of one important innovation in book marketing in the 1840s : *Simms & M’Intyre’s Parlour Library, which packaged popular novels in a single volume costing 1 s . In the towns of the south and southeast, more Irish language publishing occurred during these decades than any other. Printing in Irish effectively ceased for...

Cooperative Agriculture and Farmer Cooperatives

Cooperative Agriculture and Farmer Cooperatives  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The application of cooperative (or collective) methods of organization to agricultural production and marketing can be traced to antiquity, for cooperation is as old as organized society. ...
Food Marketing

Food Marketing  

Food marketing brings together the producer and the consumer. It is the chain of activities that brings food from “farm gate to plate.” Farmers' markets are a simple method of ...
farmer

farmer  

A sales representative who is responsible for increasing sales from current customers. In sales, the farmer will ‘grow’ sales as in agriculture the farmer will grow crops.
agricultural technology

agricultural technology  

Broadly defined, agricultural technology involves the production, processing, and marketing of a constellation of edible and non-edible commodities produced on farms. These commodities ranged from ...
quota

quota  

Reference type:
Overview Page
1 A number of units or revenue which must be generated by a salesperson.2 (market research) A predetermined number of interviews or questionnaires that must be completed. The quota can be defined by ...
Roman economy

Roman economy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The economy of Rome, like all ancient Mediterranean economies, involved the interaction of the circumstances of local agriculture with the available labour supply in the context of opportunities for ...
Household Technology.

Household Technology.  

Industrialization transformed American society, permanently altering the tools and work processes of preindustrial America. New technologies helped change how households fed, clothed, cleaned, and ...
Livestock Industry.

Livestock Industry.  

Various means of marketing livestock developed in colonial America. Boston became a market town in the seventeenth century, as did nearby Brighton a century later, as holding pens surrounded ...
mail order

mail order  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Mail order shopping originated in the United States with the launch of the Montgomery Ward catalogue in 1872. This innovation had commenced with single‐sheet listings of goods but soon evolved into ...
Wickard v. Filburn

Wickard v. Filburn  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
317 U.S. 111 (1942), argued 4 May 1942, decided 9 Nov. 1942 by vote of 9 to 0; Jackson for the Court. Perhaps the decision that best indicated how completely the Supreme Court had come in acquiescing ...
domestic Labor.

domestic Labor.  

Since the Colonial Era, domestic labor has been a significant contributor to economic production and development in America. While domestic labor encompasses a wide range of market and nonmarket ...
agribusiness

agribusiness  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Large‐scale, industrialized agriculture controlled by corporations, which includes all of the operations involved in the production, storage, processing, distribution, and wholesale marketing of farm ...
tobacco Industry

tobacco Industry  

This originated in the 16th cent. and was attacked by James I in his Counterblaste (1604). Yet smoking spread, and snuff-taking became fashionable. There were three products, cut tobacco for ...

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