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Agrarian Relations

The fiscal, economic, political, and social interrelations between the owner of land and its cultivator as reflected factually in the form of rent and coercion and juridically in ownership ...

Guatemala

Guatemala   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,080 words

...the political regime, institutional arrangements, economic relations, and conditions determining human rights protection that were directly established by or grew out of the 1954 coup d’état—while it achieved its anti-Communist objectives—subsequently prepared the way for four decades of almost uninterrupted internal armed conflict and brutal authoritarian rule. The process that led to and the actions that characterized the counterrevolution also established human rights and international-relations precedents in Guatemala that shaped the decades to follow....

Egypt from Nasser to the Present

Egypt from Nasser to the Present   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,734 words

...to government statistics, all the measures involved approximately four thousand families. Indeed, the government's measures removed some obstacles to achieving social justice through agrarian reform, increased taxation, and improved social services, but the results fell far short of the regime's initial promise of a better life for the poor. The long-awaited agrarian reform law of 1952 , which limited property rights, did allow large landowners to retain much of the land they had acquired. The maximum amount of individual property was fixed at 200...

Brazil

Brazil   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,488 words

...but under his regime some rights of Brazil's working class were formally recognized by the state for the first time. A Ministry of Labor was created, and labor unions were accorded legal status. As industrialization proceeded, the working class grew. Brazil was still an agrarian society, but its cities developed, its economy became more complex, and republican ideas of equality of citizenship were promulgated. The middle class expanded, and a civil service run on meritocratic lines was created within the state apparatus. Vargas was deposed in 1945 ,...

Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous Peoples   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,166 words

...in the national legal system, but just as often governments promote the transfer of communally held indigenous lands to other landholders, a process that began during the colonial period in many countries and intensified during postcolonial times. The breakup of indigenous agrarian communities in the nineteenth century was one of the factors leading to the Mexican Revolution of 1910 . Mapuche communities in southern Chile assertively oppose the concentration of their ancestral lands in private hands, a process actively promoted since the military...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,584 words

...Population estimates vary but suggest about twenty-four thousand, mostly resident in Hokkaido. Policy in the mid-nineteenth century regarded Hokkaido as an “empty land” to be colonized by Japan. A law passed in 1899 aimed to tie down the Ainu hunter-gatherers to a settled agrarian lifestyle, and it was expected that they would soon disappear into the majority Japanese population. Some communities retained a sense of identity, but their language almost disappeared. During the 1970s there emerged a notion of Ainu nationhood that accompanied demands for...

South American Southern Cone

South American Southern Cone   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,897 words

...Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay, Paraguay pursued a different model of economic growth. The regime distributed government-owned lands to small and medium farmers to increase commercial farming and strengthen the control of the Colorado Party over rural areas. Traditional agrarian elites continued to make money, while the beneficiaries of the agricultural colonization program were bound to the regime. The regime promoted various development projects, including the construction of the expensive Itaipú Dam, and encouraged limited industrial and urban...

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,952 words

...Muslims to stand up to the despotic sultan. In their peaceful protests, Armenians asked a fundamental question: can a Christian be the equal of a Muslim in the Ottoman Empire? The Hamidian Era Massacres In 1891 and 1892 Armenian reformers went to Sasun to help the Armenian agrarian community organize resistance to tax extortion. The resistance led to a confrontation in which a few Kurds and Armenians were killed. Shortly thereafter, the sultan ordered nomadic Kurds to invade Sasun and the Armenian villages of the region. When, in the spring of 1894 , the...

China

China   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
13,083 words

...Proletarian Cultural Revolution, during which another million people died. Overall, however, the failure of the Great Leap Forward and the resulting famine helped convince some within the party elite that socialized agriculture was an unworkable and perhaps even utopian policy. Agrarian radicalism continued, but in the wake of the famine it was tempered by a new pragmatism that stressed the absolute importance of ensuring stable and adequate food supplies. Never again would the CCP seek to radically restructure the agricultural sector or mobilize rural labor in...

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