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African-American troops

Variously called negro, coloured, and black, the history of African-American soldiers is that of US race relations in general. Even after the abolition of formal discrimination by colour, ...

African-American troops

African-American troops   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...-American troops Variously called negro, coloured, and black, the history of African-American soldiers is that of US race relations in general. Even after the abolition of formal discrimination by colour, advancement within the military has corresponded rather closely to skin shade. During the American independence war both sides employed negroes mainly in a support capacity. In 1775 , Lord Dunmore issued an emancipation decree similar to the one by Lincoln in 1862 , declaring the freedom of only the rebels' slaves and indentured servants. In the...

African-American troops

African-American troops  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Variously called negro, coloured, and black, the history of African-American soldiers is that of US race relations in general. Even after the abolition of formal discrimination by colour, advancement ...
48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...sense of racial and social pride among middle-class African-Americans, who sought at once to assert their membership in the national mainstream and to challenge its assumptions about black people’s capacity for education. Foreign-language publications always played a similar, dual role for their first- and second-generation American readers. From their origins in colonial Pennsylvania, German-language presses followed German-speaking Americans as far west as St Louis. Rather than form a unified German-American identity, these presses promoted various senses of...

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,203 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...4.1 Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus negotiate a proscription list, which includes Lepidus’ brother and Antony’s nephew. After Lepidus’ departure Antony argues that he is not fit to share the government of Rome with them, but Octavius disagrees. They set about mustering allies and troops to meet those being raised by Brutus and Cassius. 4.2 At a private conference, Brutus accuses Cassius of betraying the conspiracy’s ideals by accepting bribes: eventually they make up their quarrel, Brutus explaining his temper by revealing that he has just learned that Portia,...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the Federal Council of Australasia. Sir Henry Parkes , the New South Wales premier and former newspaper proprietor, initiated moves towards full political unification in 1889 . Then, leading up to Federation, the Australian colonies contributed troops to Britain’s war against Boer separatists in southern Africa. One of the most popular Australian books of this period was the Revd W. H. Fitchett ’s Deeds that Won the Empire (first published as a newspaper serial in 1896 ), with total sales of more than half a million. After a decade of negotiations and...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...local styles (similarly, in China), and there was also a significant Malay literature in the Arabic script that developed its own MS traditions. Finally, mention must be made of sub-Saharan Africa, where the advent of Islam in large areas of both east and west brought literacy and a distinctive written culture embodied in characteristic MS books both in Arabic and in African languages, using a distinctive style of the Arabic script ( see 37 ). Some of these were preserved in libraries; many more have emerged from private collections in recent years. 6 The...

Bureau of Colored Troops

Bureau of Colored Troops  

A bureau established on May 22, 1863, in the Adjutant General's Office of the U.S. War Department to handle all matters relating to the recruitment and organization of African American soldiers.[...]
Colored Troops

Colored Troops  

Segregated units of the U.S. Army comprised of black soldiers, usually serving under white officers. Segregation was U.S. Army policy from the Civil War until 1945, when the Gillem Report ...
Lloyd Brown

Lloyd Brown  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1913-2003), novelist, short fiction writer, journalist, and editor of New Masses and Masses and Mainstream.Lloyd Louis Brown grew up in an African American home for the elderly. His short story ...
Charles Young

Charles Young  

(1864–1919), U.S. Army colonel, military attache.The son of slaves, Young was born in Kentucky and educated in Ohio. He became the ninth African American appointed to West Point, and ...
Theophilus Gould Steward

Theophilus Gould Steward  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1843–1924), minister, journalist, novelist, historian, and autobiographer.T. G. Steward was born in 1843 in Gould-town, Pennsylvania, one of the oldest African American settlements in the state. ...
Union Army

Union Army  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Although the United States had a regular army of 16,000 career soldiers when the Civil War began, throughout the conflict it placed chief reliance on an ad hoc force of ...
Buffalo Soldiers

Buffalo Soldiers  

The first black regiments in the regular army, established by Congress on July 1866. Originally the 9th and 10th Calvary and the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st Infantry Regiments, in ...
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.

Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.  

(1912–2002) U.S. army officer and aviator. Davis Jr. was born in Washington, D.C., the son of the first African-American general. He graduated from West Point in 1936 as an infantryman ...
Susie King Taylor

Susie King Taylor  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1848–1912), nurse, educator, domestic, and autobiographer.Susie Reed was born a slave on the Isle of Wight, off the coast of Georgia, in 1848. As a child, she was educated surreptitiously by white ...
George Washington Williams

George Washington Williams  

(1849–1891) U.S. soldier, clergyman, and state legislator. Born in Bedford Springs, Pennsylvania, George Washington Williams lied about his age to join the U.S. Colored Troops in 1864. He saw combat ...
WAVES

WAVES  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Wāvzplural n. the women's section of the U.S. Naval Reserve, established in 1942, or, since 1948, of the U.S. Navy.acronym from Women Appointed (later Accepted) for Volunteer Emergency Service.[...]
women at war

women at war  

Reference type:
Overview Page
‘The last was a soldier's war. This one is Everybody's’, commented the editor of the British magazine Mother and Home in November 1939. The American ambassador in London, John G. ...
Ethnicity and Race in the Military

Ethnicity and Race in the Military  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Ethnicity and race have been less troubling military questions for the United States than for nations where ethnic and racial competition, political power struggles, or caste systems have had a ...
Union Navy

Union Navy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The Civil War caught the U.S. Navy unprepared. President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a blockade of Southern ports the week after Fort Sumter fell; but the U.S. Navy had no more ...

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