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African Americans

A citizen or resident of the United States whose ancestry can be traced to Africa. A term intended to avoid the pejorative associations of words such as “negro” and “black.” An estimated ...

Native Americans and African Americans

Native Americans and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,178 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Native Americans and African Americans in the Antebellum Era through the Civil War The interactions between African Americans and Native Americans in the nineteenth century were complex, ranging from complete communal and social integration to outright hostility and disdain from one group toward the other. Most African Americans and Native Americans did, however, share the experience of being marginalized, discriminated against, or subjugated by the white American majority. Native Americans and African American Slavery Relations between African Americans and...

Immigrants and African Americans

Immigrants and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,568 words

...early years of the twenty-first century is the growing visibility of millions of black immigrants from Latin America, Haiti, and many parts of Africa. Just as in the earlier twentieth century West Indians aroused African American suspicion and hostility, new black immigrants sometimes feel patronized and rejected by those African Americans for whom their southern origins provide the litmus test for black American authenticity. Many African Americans resent that new black immigrants might benefit from affirmative action and other hard-earned fruits of the...

Vaudeville, African Americans In

Vaudeville, African Americans In   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,642 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with African Americans portrayed alternately as fools or criminals. While white audiences reinforced their own negative views of African Americans, the earliest theaters did not permit black artists to perform. When vaudeville managers did hire African American performers, they usually allowed only one such act per bill. For the most part, however, when blacks were on stage they performed in blackface in order to conform to the white audiences’ stereotypes regarding African American physical characteristics. Despite racist portrayals, African American...

Congress, African Americans in

Congress, African Americans in   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,052 words

...African Americans in . The formal end of Reconstruction in 1877 curtailed, but did not fully erode, black participation in American politics. Violence, intimidation, and fraud kept many African Americans from the polls and certainly ensured that no black candidates were elected at the state level or to the U.S. Senate, even in majority-black states such as Louisiana, South Carolina, or Mississippi. But as late as 1890 , three black Republicans sat in the U.S. House of Representatives, and African Americans maintained a presence in several state...

Stereotypes of African Americans

Stereotypes of African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,058 words

...period in America, stereotypes of African Americans became rooted and grounded in American popular culture. Food products advertised by African Americans appeared just before the turn of the century. Two of the three earliest and most popular trademark images were developed in the nineteenth century: Aunt Jemima and Rastus, the Cream of Wheat Chef. The third image, Uncle Ben, appeared in the 1940s. These faces have become American icons, representing quality and home-cooking flavor in food production. Current images of African Americans on food products...

Disfranchisement of African Americans

Disfranchisement of African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,631 words

...to deny participation to African Americans. These “white primaries” ensured that only white candidates could even reach the ballot. This process was successfully applied across the South and was not outlawed until the Court's ruling in Smith v. Allwright in 1944 . Malapportionment and political gerrymandering Even if African Americans could actually vote, the meaning of their vote became a significant issue in regard to enforcing the amendments. In the South, disfranchisement was ensured by diluting African American votes by malapportionment and...

Communism and African Americans

Communism and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,998 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to their needs. This resonated with some African Americans, while also making the so-called Negro question a touchstone of orthodoxy within the American Communist Party. Communist opposition to segregation led a few prominent and widely respected African Americans to conclude that Communism offered the only way, or the most potent weapon, for ending white supremacy. Most African Americans saw Communism as a distraction or a poison—as something that would doom their efforts to build a place for blacks within American culture and politics. Religion also played...

Violence Against African Americans

Violence Against African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,454 words
Illustration(s):
2

...among African Americans. Blacks had now taken a position of full participation in the war effort so as to enable them to help shape the peace. Detroit's African American newspaper, the Michigan Chronicle , also called for a realization of the broader implications of the war. The struggle against the Axis was a world revolution, and that meant that the war had accelerated hopes for a new America and even a new world. The United States was fortunate in that the job could be done “without resorting to violence and bloodshed.” The link between wartime America and...

Baptists and African Americans

Baptists and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,435 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the story of separate African American Baptist practice. Historians have widely acknowledged that independent African American worship, perceived as a threat to social control and to slavery, was subject to active suppression. The so-called invisible church—congregations that met informally and practiced clandestinely—sustained untold numbers of African Americans in the years before Emancipation. Historians have debated the extent to which African Americans practiced a distinctive form of Baptist Christianity, tied to their African heritage. Some have argued...

Huguenots and African Americans

Huguenots and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
552 words

...and a governor of New York, and his sons, all Anglicans, supported abolition in New York. Huguenots' descendants continued this mixed involvement with African Americans into the nineteenth century. See also Benezet, Anthony ; Jay Family ; Jay, John, and African Americans ; Neau, Elias ; New York Conspiracy of 1741 ; and New York Slave Revolt of 1712 . Bibliography Butler, Jon . The Huguenots in America: A Refugee People in New World Society . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983. Evan...

Stereotypes of African Americans

Stereotypes of African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,934 words
Illustration(s):
3

...would affect white perceptions of African Americans and how the laws and social conventions of the nation treated blacks. See also Africa, Idea of ; Black Family ; Black Militias ; Childhood ; Civil War ; Civil War, Participation and Recruitment of Black Troops in ; Class ; Colonization ; Confederate Policy toward African Americans and Slaves ; Crime and Punishment ; Dance ; Discrimination ; Emancipation ; Film and Filmmakers ; Free African Americans before the Civil War (North) ; Free African Americans before the Civil War (South) ; ...

Moravians and African Americans

Moravians and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,571 words

...and America in the 1730s and 1740s. Zinzendorf was a social conservative. He believed that God had ordained social inequality, including slavery, yet his strong desire to spread his vision of Christianity soon brought Moravians into close contact with African Americans across the Americas. After meeting a black man at the Danish royal court who had been born a slave in the Caribbean, Zinzendorf encouraged Moravians to go to the man's home island of Saint Thomas to convert the slaves who lived there. Zinzendorf believed in the justification for African slavery...

Presbyterians and African Americans

Presbyterians and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,472 words

...and African Americans African American slaves were attracted to the Presbyterian Church, in particular, because of its emphasis on spiritual equality and congregational rule. Presbyterians first arrived in North America in 1629 and eventually settled in all of England's colonies there. Although as a rule of faith Presbyterians believe that all human beings share a spiritual equality, economic considerations led some members of the church to own slaves. After the Revolution many Presbyterian ministers in the North condemned the institution and...

Congregationalism and African Americans

Congregationalism and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,722 words

...See also American Revolution ; Catholic Church and African Americans ; Declaration of Independence ; Education ; Episcopalians (Anglicans) and African Americans ; Massachusetts ; Mather, Cotton, and African Americans ; Missionary Movements ; Presbyterians and African Americans ; Race, Theories of ; Religion ; Slavery: Northeast ; and Society of Friends (Quakers) and African Americans . Bibliography Brown, Sterling N. My Own Life Story . Washington, DC: Hamilton Printing, 1924. DeBoer, Clara M. Be Jubilant My Feet: African American...

Lutherans and African Americans

Lutherans and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,444 words

...and African Americans In 1950 the American Lutheran Church's Board of American Missions argued that its forefathers in early America either had opposed slavery or had had nothing to do with it. To support this position, the church board listed a number of facts: only a few Lutherans were in early America, the Lutherans—Germans, Swedes, and Norwegians—came from non-slave-trading nations, in 1790 only 3 percent of Germans owned slaves, and the American Lutheran Church had no organized effort to evangelize blacks until 1877 . Thereafter, little was...

Violence Against African Americans

Violence Against African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,682 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Against African Americans [ This entry contains two subentries dealing with acts of violence committed against African Americans, including legal justifications of such violence, famous incidents and their effects, and the laws and movements against such violence. The first article provides a discussion of violence from the colonial period to 1830, while the second article continues the discussion from 1830 through the rest of the nineteenth century .] Violence Against African Americans in Colonial America to 1830 In the late twentieth century, a...

African Americans

African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...African Americans as a group and recent immigrants: African Americans view themselves not as grateful new arrivals to a rich and powerful country, but as major contributors, creators, investors, and builders of America. Social Political History Political-legal decisions have been central to African Americans' struggle for equality in America. Accordingly, to understand the present day struggles and frustrations of African Americans it is important to be aware of a few key historical legal landmarks: Emancipation Proclamation (1863). During the American...

African Americans

African Americans   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,682 words

...of African Americans to emigrate back to Africa or at least out of the United States grew during the antebellum years. In 1815 Paul Cuffe ( 1759–1817 ), a wealthy African-American merchant mariner, brought a small group of settlers to Sierra Leone on the west coast of Africa. Most emancipated blacks found emigration to Africa impractical and undesirable, however, for they had been born in the United States and had little knowledge of life elsewhere. In 1817 a national meeting of black leaders rejected the efforts of white leaders of the American...

African Americans

African Americans   Reference library

Clayborne Carson

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,783 words

...of African Americans to emigrate back to Africa or at least out of the United States grew during the antebellum years. In 1815 , Paul Cuffe ( 1759–1817 ), a wealthy African American merchant mariner, brought a small group of settlers to Sierra Leone on the west coast of Africa. Most emancipated blacks found emigration to Africa impractical and undesirable, however, for they had been born in the United States and had little knowledge of life elsewhere. In 1817 , a national meeting of black leaders rejected the efforts of white leaders of the American...

African Americans

African Americans   Reference library

Joe W. Trotter Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Americans The African American community has its roots in the great migration of peoples from the Old World to the New. Unlike European, Asian, and Latino Americans, however, Africans entered the New World in chains. Despite the Revolutionary War and the emergence of the United States as an independent republic, most African Americans remained in bondage until the Civil War and Reconstruction. In the 1860 s and 1870 s, African Americans gained freedom and citizenship, but the rise of racial segregation soon undercut this achievement. By World War I,...

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