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Afghanistan War

(1979–1989) Following a military coup in April 1978, the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan took power. The party was riven by sectarian disputes and, in December ...

Afghanistan War

Afghanistan War   Quick reference

Stephen Whitefield

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
208 words

... War ( 1979–1989 ) Following a military coup in April 1978 , the communist People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan took power. The party was riven by sectarian disputes and, in December 1979 , the Soviet Union intervened in support of Babrak Karmal who was installed as president. Military conflict ensued between the Afghan army and opposition Mujahedin forces, who were themselves factionalized. The Soviet Union became involved, committing thousands of troops to action. This failed, however, to secure stability for the new communist regime and...

Afghanistan War

Afghanistan War   Quick reference

William Maley

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
609 words

...of the Afghanistan War remained largely ineffective in restabilizing the country and the general mission continued to operate on an ad hoc basis, with NATO support eventually evaporating into a largely token presence. The election of President Barack Obama in 2008 initiated the start of a significant drawdown of US forces in Afghanistan, with operations being rebranded as a stabilizing effort; with a reduced military presence, a focus on retraining the Afghan army, and the use of pinpointed military operations. The result is that Afghanistan continues...

Afghanistan, war in

Afghanistan, war in (2001– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., war in ( 2001–  ) The Afghanistan war was provoked by the September 11 attacks of 2001 . When the Taliban regime refused to surrender the Al-Qaeda figures held to be responsible for the planning for the attack, the United States began a military campaign to eliminate both groups. This was to be the first major act of the ‘War on Terror’. The war was not put to a vote at the United Nations Security Council on the grounds that, as a response to the September 11 attacks, it represented an act of self defence. America began its military campaign on 7...

Afghanistan War (SINCE 2001)

Afghanistan War (SINCE 2001)   Reference library

Michael J. Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...; Terror, War on ; United States Foreign Relations , subentry on Middle East ; and War, American Way of .] Bibliography Ewans, Martin . Afghanistan: A Short History of Its People and Politics . New York: HarperCollins, 2002. Provides an excellent overview of Afghanistan's history and domestic politics. Friedman, Norman . Terrorism, Afghanistan, and America's New Way of War . Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2003. Details the American way of war in Afghanistan. Jones, Seth G. In the Graveyard of Empires: America's War in Afghanistan . New York:...

Afghanistan War

Afghanistan War  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(2001)On 7 October 2001 the United States of America commenced air strikes against targets in Afghanistan associated with the ruling Taliban movement, and Osama Bin Laden's al‐Qaeda terrorist network ...
Afghanistan War

Afghanistan War  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1979–1989)Following a military coup in April 1978, the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan took power. The party was riven by sectarian disputes and, in December 1979, the Soviet ...
Afghan wars

Afghan wars   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
159 words

... wars From 1807 , when the armies of Tsar Alexander I reached its northern borders, Afghanistan became an uneasy neutral zone between the Russian and the British Indian empires around which ‘the Great Game’ was played. The British launched three military interventions—in 1838–42 , 1878–81 , and 1919–21 . None was successful. The first Afghan War against Dost Mohammed saw a British expeditionary force capture the capital, Kabul. However, surrounding tribes forced a desperate retreat through mountainous country and only one member of the original army...

Afghan wars

Afghan wars   Reference library

David Anthony Washbrook

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
188 words

... wars . From 1807 , when the armies of Tsar Alexander I reached its northern borders, Afghanistan came to represent an uneasy neutral zone between the Russian and the British Indian empires around which ‘the Great Game’ was played. The British attempted to bring the kingdom under ‘informal influence’ but, when this broke down, launched three military interventions—in 1838–42 , 1878–81 , and 1919–21 . None were successful. The first Afghan War against Dost Mohammed saw a British expeditionary force reach and capture the capital, Kabul. However,...

Afghan War

Afghan War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
348 words

...Afghan War , a subject in Branwell Brontë 's poetry. In November 1837 Mohammed Shah of Persia, with Russia's approval, besieged Herat in western Afghanistan. Perceiving a threat to British supremacy in India, the governor‐general, Lord Auckland , ordered an invasion of Afghanistan, in order to restore Shah Shuja , its former ruler, instead of the supposedly pro‐Russian Dost Mohammed. In April 1839 the British army entered Kandahar, crowned the Shah, went on to capture Ghazni in July 1840 , and installed Shah Shuja in Kabul. The Afghans resented...

Anglo‐Afghan Wars

Anglo‐Afghan Wars   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
165 words

...Afghan Wars A series of wars between Afghan rulers and British India. The first occurred (1838–42) when Britain, concerned about Russian influence in Afghanistan , sent an army to replace Dost Muhammad with a pro‐British king, Shah Shuja al‐Mulk. Resistance to Shuja’s rule culminated in an uprising (1841), which led to the destruction of the British Indian forces in Kabul during their withdrawal to Jalalabad (1842). Kabul was reoccupied the same year, but British forces were withdrawn from Afghanistan. The second (1878–80) was also fought to exclude...

Anglo-Afghan Wars

Anglo-Afghan Wars   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,793 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Afghan Wars . From the end of the Napoleonic Wars ( 1803–1815 ) to the end of the British Raj in 1947 , the problem of the northwest frontier of colonial India and the potential threat that Russia posed to it loomed large in the minds of India's British rulers. In the middle of the so-called Great Game between the two great powers lay the fractious tribal grouping in the Hindu Kush known as Afghanistan. Britain's fears of possible Russian moves on this country, largely the stuff of fantasy, drove Britain into two wars in Afghanistan in the nineteenth...

Afghan-Soviet War

Afghan-Soviet War   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,671 words

...-Soviet War . The Afghan-Soviet War ( 1979–1989 ) was one of the most brutal conflicts of the Cold War era. It was also decisive, in that it so enervated the Soviet state as to hasten its collapse. The war proved to be more destructive than decisive for Afghans. It ruined the Afghan state, while giving rise to an Islamic movement that has embroiled Afghans in an international struggle that has proved just as devastating to the Afghan people. Origins. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was rooted in the Pashtunistan issue. When India was partitioned in ...

Anglo-Afghan wars

Anglo-Afghan wars (1838–1919)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...massacre . The Afghan army was pushed back over the border and the hostile tribes gradually subdued. Further south, in Baluchistan, the threat of an Afghan invasion was countered by the British attacking the strong Afghan fortress of Spin Baldak, which guarded the road to Kandahar. The fort was stormed and captured in an old-style assault on 27 May 1919 , putting an end to the Afghan threat. A peace treaty was signed on 8 August 1919 , bringing the third Anglo-Afghan war to a close but also formal recognition of full Afghan independence. The war had caused...

Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the

Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the   Reference library

Jonathan Pieslak

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,335 words

...consume and create music in the combat theater in new ways. If the Vietnam war was, on a musical level, the “first rock ‘n’ roll war,” it may be appropriate to dub the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq as the first “iPod wars.” This entry briefly explores some of the ways music operates in warfare, focusing on the experiences of American soldiers in Iraq. Iraq War veteran Major Sergeant (MSG) CJ Grisham highlights one important way that music operated as an inspiration and motivation for combat during his deployment at the initial invasion of Iraq in March ...

Afghan wars

Afghan wars  

From 1807, when the armies of Tsar Alexander I reached its northern borders, Afghanistan became an uneasy neutral zone between the Russian and the British Indian empires around which ‘the Great Game’ ...
Anglo-Afghan Wars

Anglo-Afghan Wars  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A series of wars between Afghan rulers and British India. The first occurred (1838–42) when Britain, concerned about Russian influence in Afghanistan, sent an army to replace Dost Muhammad with a ...
Othello

Othello   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,092 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...for inflicting emotional wounds. Nicholas Hytner’s Othello (National, 2013 ), starring Adrian Lester and Rory Kinnear , similarly invested in the significance of the backdrop of war as key to Iago’s mysterious, paranoid hatred, Othello’s jealousy, and, in a world in which soldiers rely on each other for life, the trust between the two men. Summoning Iraq and Afghanistan in a modern army in which women serve alongside men and post-traumatic stress disorder undoes the judgement, it again sought largely to obviate uncomfortable engagement with racially...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...both by Muslims and by their enemies. The Mongol devastations of the 13 th century are especially notorious, but the phenomenon has continued into the present era: important Islamic MS collections have been wholly or partly destroyed in and after the wars in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq in the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries. What remains, however, forms a substantial part of the world’s intellectual and textual heritage. Not only is this heritage a vital underpinning of Muslim life and thought, but it has also constituted an...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...languages, 38 of which were translated at Serampore by Carey and his associates. There were altogether 117 *editions , of which 25 were in Bengali. It seems that the Press supplied bibles to almost all significant Baptist missions in the region, from Indonesia in the east to Afghanistan in the west. From the report for 1813 , it appears that a Malay bible in roman characters was in preparation, while a five-volume reprint of the entire Bible in Arabic was being undertaken for the lieutenant-governor of Java. The memorandum of 1816 claims that a Chinese...

Dost Muhammad

Dost Muhammad  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(c. 1798–1863)Amir of Afghanistan. He was ruler of Kabul and Afghanistan (1826–39; 1843–63). Defeated in the first Anglo-Afghan War, he regained power in 1843 and consolidated his rule in Afghanistan ...

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