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Assyria

Assyria   Quick reference

Dynasties of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History
Length:
751 words

... (son) 1390–1364 (27) Eriba-Adad I (son of Ashur-bel-nisheshu ) 1363–1328 (36) Ashur-uballit I (son) 1327–1318 (10) Enlil-nirari (son) 1317–1306 (12) Arik-den-ili (son) 1305–1274 (32) Adad-nirari I (son) 1273–1244 (30) Shalmaneser I (son) 1243–1207 (37) Tukulti-Ninurta I (son) 1206–1203  (4) Ashur-nadin-apli (son) 1202–1197  (6) Ashur-nirari III (nephew) 1196–1192  (5) Enlil-kudurri-usur (son of Tukulti-Ninurta I ) 1191–1179 (13) Ninurta-apil-Ekur (descendant of Eriba-Adad I ) 1178–1133 (46) Ashur-dan I (son) Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur ...

Rimah, Tell Er-

Rimah, Tell Er-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,284 words

...mainly concerned with tin and barley, date to the reigns of Shalmaneser I and Tukulti-Ninurta I . The place name Qaṭṭara is frequently attested in them; Karana does not occur. In texts of this time from Aššur, both Karana and Qaṭṭara are found, but without indications for locating them. The site was completely abandoned after the Middle Assyrian period. It was partly resettled in the Neo-Assyrian period, but the old temple was not restored. Under the Assyrian king Adad-Nirari III , it belonged to the province of Rasappa and was renamed Zamahe ....

Sheikh Ḥamad, Tell

Sheikh Ḥamad, Tell   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
821 words

...located in northeast Syria, 70 km (43 mi.) north-northeast of Deir ez-Zor, on the east bank of the Khabur, the largest tributary of the Euphrates River (35°37′ N, 40°45′ E). The site was first investigated by Hormuzd Rassam in 1879 , who discovered the fragmentary stela of Adad-Nirari III now in the British Museum. Surveyed by Hartmut Kühne and Wolfgang Röllig in 1975 and 1977 , systematic excavations began, under Kühne's direction in 1978 under the auspices of the Free University of Berlin. The most ancient settlement dates to the late fourth...

Shuppiluliumas

Shuppiluliumas   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Hittite defeat of Tushratta in the “Great Syrian War” made Hatti the dominant power in northern Syria. Yet the decline of Mitanni and its replacement by the rump state of Khanigalbat also had the unintended consequence of liberating Assyria, then probably under the rule of Adad-nirari (I). Shuppiluliumas's Syrian ventures also brought Kadesh into the Hittite orbit. This town was to be a major focal point in later struggles between Egypt and Hatti. Another interesting event in Shuppiluliumas's reign was his marriage to a Babylonian princess, probably a...

Aššur

Aššur   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,002 words

...with the emergence of the so-called Middle Assyrian Empire are Adad-Nirari I ( 1307–1275 bce ), his son Shalmaneser I ( 1274–1245 bce ), and his grandson Tukulti-Ninurta I ( 1244–1208 bce ). All of them contributed to the restoration and rebuilding of Aššur. Under the reign of Adad-Nirari I, the Old Palace was rebuilt and restoration work was performed at the Temple of Sin and Shamash. Shalmaneser I is known to have rebuilt the partly burnt Aššur Temple, and Tukulti-Ninurta I initiated a completely new building program. During his reign a deep...

Nimrud

Nimrud   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,844 words
Illustration(s):
3

...and a reception suite. Ashurnasirpal claimed to have founded the building, but much of the construction work was done in the reign of Adad-Nirari III. A number of tablets were found here, including the “vassal treaties” of Esarhaddon. The temple held two pairs of statues of attendant gods, one colossal and one life-sized; inscriptions on the latter mention Adad-Nirari III. There was also a round-topped stela of Shamshi-Adad V ( 823–811 bce ), showing the king with symbols of gods. A number of incised ivory plaques in Assyrian style were found in this...

Mitanni

Mitanni   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,746 words
Illustration(s):
1

...final phase of Mitanni's political survival was marked by Assyrian interference. Ashur-Uballit I ( 1363–1328 ) supported Šuttarna III against his enemy Šattiwazza and the latter's Hittite allies and probably annexed Nuzi and Arrapḫa to Assyrian territory. Adad-nirari I ( 1305–1274 ) and Shalmaneser I ( 1273–1244 ) dealt with the last royal clan of Mitanni: Šattuara I, his son Wasašatta, and his grandson Šattuara II. After the defeat of Šattuara II by Shalmaneser I, very early in the latter's reign, Mitanni was annexed to Assyria and ceased to exist as a...

Edom

Edom   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,692 words

...the appearance of villages, hilltop settlements, fortresses, towns, a major city, the copper industry, and evidence of foreign trade belong, together with vassaldom to the Assyrians, to the eighth–seventh centuries bce ; Edomite tribute is mentioned in the records of Adad-Nirari I, Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal; the last two kings required military service also. Assyrian rule may help explain Edom's relative prosperity and security. Edom's material culture was similar to that of its Transjordanian neighbors....

Ḥalaf, Tell

Ḥalaf, Tell   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,801 words
Illustration(s):
3

...building construction underlying the extensive remains of the Kapara period (von Oppenheim, 1950 ; see below). The name of the Iron Age city at Tell Ḥalaf is known as Guzana from Assyrian sources and materials found at the site. The literary references date from the time of Adad-Nirari II ( 911–891 bce ). He is said to have received tribute from Abisalamu of Bit-Baḫiani, where Guzana is the capital city, to the time of Sargon II ( 721–705 bce ), when the latest of many governors is mentioned. The Assyrian rulers Tukulti-Ninurta II and Ashurbanipal II ...

Tribute and Taxation

Tribute and Taxation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,185 words

...are recorded for Ahaz (735–715) and Hezekiah (715–687) of Judah to Tiglath‐pileser and Sennacherib (704–681; 2 Kings 16.8 ; 18.14–16 ). Assyrian royal annals also claim such tribute from Jehu (843–815) of Israel to Shalmaneser III (858–824) and from Israel to Adadnirari III (809–782). Traumatic as it was, one‐time payment represented the least of obligations in a hierarchy that proceeded to annual tribute and finally incorporation as a province of the empire. The first biblical indication of annual tribute occurs just before the fall of the...

Syria

Syria   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
20,061 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Bit-Baḫiani, with its capital at Guzana, modern Tell Ḥalaf, is first mentioned by Adad-Nirari ( 912–891 ). [See Ḥalaf, Tell .] In 894 bce he had received tribute from Prince Abisalamu . During the reign of the Ashurnasirpal II and his son Shalmaneser III ( 858–824 ), Guzana was, to all appearances, a vassal-state of Assyria. After the revolution against Shalmaneser in Assyria in 827 , and until 808 , Guzana was an independent state. In 808 Adad-Nirari occupied the city and placed Mannu-ki-Ashur as a governor of Guzana. During the reign of ...

Archaeology and the Bible

Archaeology and the Bible   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,255 words

...of Qarqar (853). One of the rare monumental inscriptions from the area is the Moabite Stone of Ahab's enemy, King Mesha ( cf. 2 Kings 3.27 ). The famous Black Obelisk depicts King Jehu ( 843–816 BCE ) of Israel prostrating himself before Shalmaneser III . A stele of AdadNirari III lists Joash of Samaria as offering tribute to the Assyrians . Menahem of Israel also paid tribute to Tiglath‐pileser III ( 2 Kings 15.19–20 ). Sargon II claimed that he captured 27,290 prisoners and “their gods,” when Samaria fell in 722 BCE . The exiles were...

Political Leadership

Political Leadership   Reference library

Saana Svärd, Rachel Havrelock, Gillian Ramsey, Kristina Milnor, Susan E. Hylen, and Robert M. Royalty Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,198 words

...been part of Esarhaddon’s plan to bolster his mother’s status to enable her to smooth the road for the kingship of Ashurbanipal. Although Naqi’a stands out from the body of Neo-Assyrian evidence, she is not alone. There is still debate whether Sammu-ramat, the mother of King Adad-Nirari III (810–783), was a co-regent with her son. In any case, however, she did go on a military campaign with him, and together they erected a monument to commemorate their victory. The body of textual and iconographical evidence on the Neo-Assyrian queen suggests that her position...

Israel and Israelites

Israel and Israelites   Reference library

Oded Lipschits

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Theology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,298 words

...the portrait of Jehu kneeling before the Assyrian king. The Aramean stele found at Tel Dan mentions the killing of the king of Israel, probably Joram, and the king of the House of David, probably Ahaziah. The name “the House of Omri” for the kingdom of Israel appears also in Adad-Nirari III’s inscription from Kalah and in Tiglath-Pileser’s inscription summarizing the annexation of the territory of Aram Damascus. In 733 b.c.e. , the northern kingdom was partially captured by Tiglath-Pileser III (see 2 Kgs 15:29 ), and the capture of “the land of the House...

Metals

Metals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,951 words
Illustration(s):
5

...tribute in metals paid by vassal states from all parts of the Assyrian empire. The Assyrian kings used some of their newly acquired metal resources to decorate the wooden doors of their temples and palaces with strips of bronze. Such bronze overlays are first mentioned by Adad-Nirari I ( 1305–1274 bce ) and continued to be used down to the end of the Neo-Assyrian period (late seventh century bce ). Examples of decorated bronze strips nailed to wooden doors are known from Aššur, Nimrud, Khorsabad, and Tell Hadad (in the Hamrin basin). [See Aššur ; ...

Aram-Damascus

Aram-Damascus   Reference library

K. Lawson Younger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,541 words

...Hazael’s son, Ben-Hadad (Bar-Hadad), ruled over Aram-Damascus (ca. 803–775 b.c.e. ). He is mentioned in 2 Kings 13:3 and 13:24–25 and the Zakkur Inscription. Depending on how one understands the Adad-idri identification and the Ben-Hadad references in connection with Ahab, he is either Ben-Hadad II or III. The Assyrian inscriptions of Adad-nirari III record his attack on Damascus and his confinement of “Mari” within the city, probably in 796 b.c.e. ( COS 2:275–276 ). Mari (“my lord”) could be either a title or a hypocoristic of the king’s name...

Gaza

Gaza   Reference library

Aren Maeir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
1,405 words

...cities of the Philistines ( Josh 13:2–4 ) and that it was not captured by the Israelites ( Judg 1:18 ). Likewise, Gaza figures centrally in the Samson narratives ( Judg 13—16 ). Finally, Gaza is condemned in Amos 1:6 . The Assyrian sources mention Gaza from the reign of Adad-nirari III (r. 810–783 b.c.e. ) and onward. Tiglath-pileser III (r. 745–727 b.c.e. ) campaigned to and captured Gaza and its king Hanno in 734 b.c.e. , who had rebelled against Assyria. Hanno later rebelled again, and Sargon II (r. 721–705 b.c.e. ) once again captured Gaza and...

Amos

Amos   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,627 words

...of the Assyrian Empire and Aram/Syria, the northern kingdom of Israel's immediate neighbor to the north. Syria had been a principal foe in the second half of the ninth century ( 2 Kgs 5–6 ; 10:32–33 ), but it suffered a series of reverses that extended from the Assyrian king Adad-Nirari III's campaigns of 805–803 into the first quarter of the eighth century. Assyria had entered into a period of decline after the death of this king in 783 . Beset with internal problems, the empire did not reassert itself in the region until after Tiglath-pileser III assumed...

1 and 2 Kings

1 and 2 Kings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
13,163 words
Illustration(s):
3

...In an exceptional reversal of fate, it is reported that Israel enjoyed a respite from these deprivations through the hands of an unnamed “deliverer” sent by the Lord in response to the prayer of King Jehoahaz ( 13:4–5 ). This may be a veiled reference to the Assyrian king, Adad-nirari III, who campaigned for a number of years in the west; he subdued Damascus in 796 b.c.e. and lists “Joash of Samaria” among those from whom he received tribute (Cogan 2008 , pp. 39–41) . Toward the mid-eighth century b.c.e. , the kingdom of Israel recovered once again and...

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