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Abu al-Hasan al- Mawardi

Subject: Religion

(d. 1058) Shafii jurist who wrote the most significant classical theoretical explanation of public law in relation to political theory, Al-ahkam al-sultaniyyah (Ordinances of ...

Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan al-

Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan al- (1058)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

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2003
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Religion
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125 words

...Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan al- (d. 1058 ) Shafii jurist who wrote the most significant classical theoretical explanation of public law in relation to political theory, Al-ahkam al-sultaniyyah ( Ordinances of government ). Lived and wrote during the period of political transition from Shii Buwayhids to Sunni Seljuks, which brought into question the type of leadership appropriate for Muslim communities. Emphasized the authority of the caliph over that of the sultan in order to strengthen the caliph's hand against military commanders who held the power behind the...

Māwardī, Abū al-Ḥasan al-

Māwardī, Abū al-Ḥasan al-   Reference library

Ovamir Anjum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

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Current Version:
2014
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Religion, Social sciences, Politics
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2,263 words

...Al-Māwardī's interest is to wed theory to reality and sustain the caliphate as much as possible and so he makes the formal aspect of the appointment an easy to carry out ritual. That his political program looks odd and unrealistic is not because it is divorced from practice, but precisely because he was trying to wed theory to practice without challenging either too much. Bibliography Works of Abū al-Ḥasan al-Māwardī Tashīl al-naẓar wa-taʿjīl al-ẓafar fī akhlāq al-malik wa-siyāsat al-mulk . Edited by Riḍwān al-Sayyid . Beirut: Dār al-ʿUlūm al...

al-Mawardi, Abu'l Hasan

al-Mawardi, Abu'l Hasan (364–450)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

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2010
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Philosophy, Religion
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812 words

...-Mawardi, Abu'l Hasan ( 364–450 / 974–1058 ) Abu'l Hasan ‘Ali b. Muhammad was born in Basra in 364 / 974 and died in Baghdad on 30 Rabi al-Awwal 450 / 27 May 1058 . He was an important faqih (legal thinker) in the Shafi'ite tradition and a famous political theorist and moral thinker of Sunni Islam. There is not much information about his family and his early life. His father was a manufacturer. Al-Mawardi received his early education in Basra where he studied hadith with Hasan b. Muhammad al-Jabali , Muhammad b. Adiy al-Makri , Muhammad b. al...

Abu al-Hasan al- Mawardi

Abu al-Hasan al- Mawardi  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1058)Shafii jurist who wrote the most significant classical theoretical explanation of public law in relation to political theory, Al-ahkam al-sultaniyyah (Ordinances of government). Lived and ...
Dār al-Ḥarb

Dār al-Ḥarb   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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2009

...Law of Nations.” American Journal of International Law 50, no. 2 (1956): 358–372. Lambton, Ann K. S. “A Nineteenth Century View of Jihad.” Studia Islamica 32 (1970): 181–192. Māwardī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad al- . Les statuts gouvernementaux, ou, Règles de droit public et administratif . Translated by Edmond Fagnan. Beirut, 1982. Parvin, Manoucher, and Maurice Sommer. “Dar al-Islam: The Evolution of Muslim Territoriality and Its Implication for Conflict Resolution in the Middle East.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 12 (1980): 1–21....

Ahl al-Ḥall Wa-al-ʿAqd

Ahl al-Ḥall Wa-al-ʿAqd   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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2009

...139, 141, 184, 311. Māwardī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad al- . Al-Aḥkām al-Sulṭānīyah (The Laws of the Caliphate). Edited by M. Engri . Bonn, 1853. Translated from the French by Léon Ostrorog as Le droit du Califat. Paris: Éditions Leroux, 1925. Well-known classical work on constitutional theory. See pages 6–7, 21–22. Meri, Josef W. , ed. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia . 2 vols.London: Routledge, 2006. Shaltūt, Maḥmūd . Min Tawjīhāt al-Islām (Concerning the Guiding Principles of Islam). 7th ed.Cairo and Beirut: Dār al-Shurūq, 1983, pp....

Muḥtasib

Muḥtasib   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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Current Version:
2009

.... Kitāb al-taysīr fī ahkām al-tasʿīr . Edited by Mūsā Laqbāl . Algiers, n.d. Ibn Taymīyah, Aḥmad . Al-ḥisbah fī al-Islām . Beirut, 1387/1967. Laqbāl, Mūsā . Al-ḥisbah al-madhhabīyah fī bilād al-Maghrib al-ʿArabī . Algiers, 1971. Māwardī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad al- . Al-aḥkām al-sulṭānīyah . Edited by Muḥammad ʿAbd-al-Qādir . Būlāq, Cairo, 1880. Translated into French by Edmond Fagnam as Les statuts gouvernementaux, ou, Règles de droit public et administratif. Paris, 1982. Shayzarī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Naṣr . Nihāyat al-rutbah fī ṭalab al-ḥisbah ....

ʿUshr

ʿUshr   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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2009

...Māwardī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad al- . Al-aḥkām al-sulṭānīyah wa-al-wilāyāt al-dīnīyah . Al-Manṣūrah, 1989. Translated into French by Edmond Fagnan as Les statuts gouvernementaux, ou, Règles de droit public et administratif. Paris, 1982. Contains an elaborate exposition of the Shāfiʿī laws on taxation. Quṭb, Sayyid . Social Justice in Islam . Translated by John B. Hardie . Washington, D.C., 1953. Contains discussions of the legitimate kinds of landownership and of the Islamic notions of communal wealth. Ṣadr, Muḥammad Bāqir al- . ...

Akhlāq

Akhlāq   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,360 words

... al-Māwardī's Adāb al-dunyā wa al-dīn , Ibn Ḥazm's al-Akhlāq wa al-sīr , Abū Naṣr al-Ṭabarsī's Makārim al-akhlāq , Ibn Miskawayh's Tahdhīb al-akhlāq , Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī's Akhlāq-i Naṣīrī , Jalāl al-Dīn Dawwani's Akhlāq-i Jalālī , and Kinalizade Ali Efendi's Akhlāq-i ʿAlaʿi . While these are devoted exclusively to ethics, they also deal with other issues that have, traditionally, been part of the Islamic ethical tradition, i.e., household management, city life, politics, and governance. One should also mention such independent works as al...

Bāqillānī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ṭayyib al-

Bāqillānī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ṭayyib al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,027 words

...that he studied uṣūl al-dīn (fundamentals of faith) under a number of disciples of Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī ( d. 935 ), the eponymous founder of the Ashʿarī school of theology. He also studied fiqh under the leading Mālikī of Baghdad, Abū Bakr al-Abharī ( d. 985 ). His lectures, such as those at al-Manṣūr Mosque in Baghdad, on a variety of Islamic subjects, including usūl al-dīn (teaching al-Ashʿarī's Kitāb al-lumaʿ , or Book of Illumination) and fiqh , are said to have attracted large gatherings. Bāqillānī is buried near the grave of Aḥmad ibn...

Monarchy

Monarchy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,349 words

...to the Prophet. Qurʿān 4:59 , however, while primarily enjoining obedience to God and the messenger, affords some scope for flexibility by adding, “and those in charge among you.” The aim of such great jurists as al-Māturīdī ( d. 944 ), Bāqillānī ( d. 1013 ), Baghdādī ( d. 1037 ), al-Māwardī ( d. 1058 ), Juwaynī ( d. 1085 ), al-Ghazālī ( d. 1111 ), and Ibn Taymīyah ( d. 1328 ) was threefold: adherence to revelation; maintaining Muslim piety; and, never more than in the paramount matter of leadership of the community, matching Muslim theory...

Tablīgh

Tablīgh   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,630 words

...Raḥmān . Tadhkira Amīr Tablīgh, Mawlānā Muḥammad Yūsuf Dihlawī . Sargodha, Pakistan: Dhuʿl Nūrayn Academy, 1980. Ḥajjāj, Abū al-Ḥusayn Muslim bin al- . Ṣaḥīḥ . Vol. 1. Cairo: Dār al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1954. Kāndhalavī, Iḥtishāmul Ḥasan . Payām-i ʿAmal . Delhi: Idāra Ishā ʿat Dīniyāt, 1959. Khālidī, Muṣṭafā . Al-tabshīr wa-al-istiʿmār fī al-bilād al- ʿarabīyah: ʿArd li-juhūd al-mubasshirīn allatī tarmā ilā ikhḍāʿal-sharq lil-istiʿmār al-gharbī . Beirut, 1964. The author argues that Christian missionaries used educational institutions, hospitals, and literary...

Islamic Schools of Sacred Law

Islamic Schools of Sacred Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
12,540 words
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1

...of the Law .] Bibliography primary works Ashʿari, Abu al-Hasan ʿAli ibn Ismaʿil . Maqalat al-Islamiyin . Edited by H. Ritter . Istanbul: Devlet Matbaasi, 1929. Ibn Hazm, ʿAli ibn Ahmad . Kitab al-fisal wa al-milal wa-al-nihal . 5 vols. Baghdad: Maktabat al-Muthanna, 1964. Ibn Tahir al Baghdadi, ʿAbd al-Qahir . Kitab al-farq bayna al-firaq . Cairo: Matbaʿat al-Maʿarif, 1328/1910. Khurasani al-Ibadi, Bishr ibn Ghanim al- . Al-Mudawwana al-kubra . 2 vols. Oman: Wizarat al-Turath al-Qawmi wa-al-Thaqafa, 1984. secondary works Brünnow, Rudolf-Ernst . ...

Constitution

Constitution   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,756 words

...It permitted the coexistence of Muslims with other monotheists having a revealed scripture ( ahl al-kitāb , people of the book, i.e., Jews and Christians), who enjoyed freedom of worship in return for loyalty and payment of a poll-tax ( jizyah ). Abū al-ḥasan ʿAlī al-Māwardī ( d. 1058 ) was one of the first political philosophers to define the Sunnī concept of the caliphate at a time when it was beginning its decline as a viable institution. His book Al-aḥkām al-sulṭānīyah (The Ordinances of Government) proposes that in the Islamic state, sovereignty belongs...

Islamic State

Islamic State   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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Current Version:
2009
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Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
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7,984 words

...juridical theory was on the authority of the caliph as a political symbol and the unity of the jamāʿah as a human base. The classical writings of Abū al-Ḥasan al-Māwardī ( d. 1058 ce ) and Abū Yaʿlā al-Farrāʿ ( d. 1066 ce ) are illustrative of such an emphasis. Later on, when the authority of the leader and the unity of the community ceased to be intact and absolute, the emphasis, as in the work of Taqī al-Dīn ibn Taymīyah ( d. 1328 ce ), was to shift to sharīʿah as a basis for ideological unity, since political and human unity were no longer...

Law

Law   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
26,587 words
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...Shihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī . Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1996. Maḥmaṣānī, Ṣubḥī Rajab . Falsafat al-Tashrīʿ fī al-Islām: The Philosophy of Jurisprudence in Islam . Translated by Farhat J. Ziadeh . Leiden: E. J. Brill , 1961. See especially chapter 5.4 on evidence. Mardin, Ebülaʿulâ , “Development of the Sharīʿa under the Ottoman Empire.” In Law in the Middle East , edited by Majid Khadduri and Herbert J. Liebesny , pp. 279–291. Washington: Middle East Institute, 1955–. Māwardī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibn Habīb al-Shāf iʿī , al- (d. 1058). Al-Aḥkam al...

Non-Muslims in Islamic Law

Non-Muslims in Islamic Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,136 words

...35–52. Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan al- . Al-Hawi al-Kabir . Edited by ʿAli Muhammad and ʿAdil ʿAbd al-Mawjud . Vols. 12 and 13. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1994. Qattan, Najwa al- . “ Dhimmīs in the Muslim Court: Legal Autonomy and Religious Discrimination. ” International Journal of Middle East Studies 31 (1999): 429–444. Tritton, A. S. The Caliphs and Their Non-Muslim Subjects: A Critical Study of the Covenant of ʿUmar . London: Frank Cass, 1970. Zaydan, ʿAbd al-Karim . Ahkam al-Dhimmiyyin wa-al-Mustaʾminin . 2d ed. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risala,...

Caliph

Caliph   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
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3,691 words
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...units. As a case in point, Richard Mitchell ( The Society of the Muslim Brethren , London, 1969 , p. 246) shows that Ḥasan al-Bannā, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, sometimes spoke of the eventual reestablishment of the caliphate, but only vaguely and with little real concern. Al-Bannā even suggested that the title of the chief executive in an Islamic state would not be important. The Indo-Pakistani Islamist Abū al-Aʿlā Mawdūdī advanced the concept of “theodemocracy” and stressed that the khilāfah (distinguished from sovereignty in being...

Censorship

Censorship   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
4,664 words

...benefit (political, social, or economic) and scorning any consideration for wealth or even life; it must be a pure act of “love of God ( li-wajh Allāh ).” These people are self-appointed volunteers ( mutaṭawwiʿ ), like the Sufi ascetic Abu al-Hasan al-Nuri who broke the jars of wine belonging to the violent Abbasid caliph al-Muʿtaḍid ( r. 892–902 ) in the early tenth century. The masses frequently call them “busybody mystics.” A thirteenth-century Yemenite ruler said that “Anyone who does that [kind of action] must be either a saint or a madman, and either...

Qurʿān

Qurʿān   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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2009
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Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
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18,315 words
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...(though still formidable) commentaries were produced by al-Wāḥidī (mentioned above), and included al-Māwardī's ( d. 1058 ) al-Nukat wa-l-ʿuyūn (The Fine Points and Key Aspects) and al-Muḥarrar al-wajīz (The Abridged Collection) of Ibn ʿAṭiyya ( d. 1147 ). Doubtless the most popular abridged commentary is the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn ( Tafsīr of the Two Jalāls), so-called because it was begun by Jalāl al-dīn al-Maḥallī ( d. 1459 ) and completed by his student, the aforementioned Jalāl al-dīn al-Suyūṭī. This is basically a handbook of Qurʿānic exegesis...

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