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Abdurrahman Wahid

Subject: Religion

(1940–2009) Also known as Gus Dur. Indonesian Islamic thinker, writer, and politician. Elected president of Indonesia in 1998 and replaced by parliamentary vote in 2000. Chair of ...

Abdurrahman Wahid

Abdurrahman Wahid   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,274 words

... Wahid . Elected as Indonesia's fourth president in 1999 , Abdurrahman Wahid ( b. 1940 ) is an influential Muslim intellectual leader, as well as a popular writer on cultural, social, and political affairs. Over the years, he underlined Islam's contribution to pluralism, social justice, and democracy, and served as chairperson of the Executive Council (Tanfidziyah) of the Nahdatul Ulama ( NU ), an association of traditionalist ʿulamāʿ with a reported thirty million supporters. He is widely called “Gus Dur”; Gus is an honorific for a young man from...

Wahid, Abdurrahman

Wahid, Abdurrahman (1940–2009)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
198 words

...Wahid, Abdurrahman ( 1940–2009 ) Also known as Gus Dur . Indonesian Islamic thinker, writer, and politician. Elected president of Indonesia in 1998 and replaced by parliamentary vote in 2000 . Chair of the Executive Council of Nahdatul Ulama (NU) from 1984 to 1998 . Promoted pesantren (rural Islamic boarding schools) as an agent for the development of rural community and democratic society at the grassroots level. Desired reconstruction of socioethical guidelines for contemporary Muslims through reinterpretation of the Quran and Sunnah in historical...

Abdurrahman Wahid

Abdurrahman Wahid  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1940–2009)Also known as Gus Dur. Indonesian Islamic thinker, writer, and politician. Elected president of Indonesia in 1998 and replaced by parliamentary vote in 2000. Chair of the Executive Council ...
Laskar Jihad

Laskar Jihad  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Laskar Jihad (the Jihad Paramilitary Force) emerged in Indonesia in the context of political reform, religious violence in Maluku province (the Molucca Islands), and the founding of the Forum ...
Nahdatul Ulama

Nahdatul Ulama  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
One of the two largest Islamic traditionalist grassroots social organizations in Indonesia. Established in 1926 as part of the nationalist awakening and general Islamic reform. Its social basis is ...
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono  

(SBY)(b. 9 Sept 1949),President of Indonesia, 2004–  Born in Pacitan, East Java, he graduated from the Military Academy in 1973, and rose quickly through the army ranks to become general. Popularly ...
Islam in Indonesia

Islam in Indonesia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
In 2001 Indonesia possessed the largest Muslim population of any country in the world. Between 85 and 90 percent of the population of more than 180 million is Muslim, mostly Sunnis who adhere to the ...
National Awakening Party

National Awakening Party   Reference library

Fred R. von der Mehden

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
526 words

...officially remained aloof from electoral politics, the new party was led by Abdurrahman Wahid (known as Gus Dur), who came from a prominent NU and Islamic family, and was chairman of the coalition from 1984 to 1999 , when he was elected the republic's fourth president. During the latter part of the New Order, Wahid supported the NU's divorce from national politics, as he sought to establish a grassroots foundation that would be ready to act. upon Suharto's fall. Toward that end, Wahid was at the forefront of the movement to oust Suharto and return Indonesia to...

Nahdatul Ulama

Nahdatul Ulama   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
178 words

...looking after orphans and the poor; and organization of Islamically lawful bodies for the advancement of agriculture, trade, and industry. It provides a forum for personal piety and spiritual solidarity through face-to-face communication. The group was headed by Abdurrahman Wahid from 1984 until his election as Indonesia's first democratically chosen president in 1999...

Yudhoyono, Susilo Bambang

Yudhoyono, Susilo Bambang   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
319 words

...Pacitan, East Java, he graduated from the Military Academy in 1973 , and rose quickly through the army ranks to become a general. Popularly known by his initials, SBY left the army in 2000 , serving as minister in the government of Abdurrahman Wahid , until he was dismissed for not calling a state of emergency to protect Wahid. He was reappointed to hold a position in the government of Megawati Sukarnoputri , as minister responsible for counter-terrorism. Owing to his rising popularity in that position, SBY was again sacked by a jealous President. He...

Nahdatul Ulama

Nahdatul Ulama   Reference library

Tauseef Ahmad Parray

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,152 words

...Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle). NU became more visible during the presidency of Abdurrahman Wahid (October 1999–July 2001 ) in efforts to involve pesantren in community development. This shift of focus exposed the NU's younger and more active members to nongovernmental-organization activities, creating an awareness among the pesantren of the relationship between religious discourse and social and economic activities. Abdurrahman Wahid ( 1940–2009 ), the first democratically elected president of Indonesia after the resignation of...

Indonesia, Islam in

Indonesia, Islam in   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
272 words

...1970s, radical Muslims turned to violence to express opposition to the government, seeking a stronger role for Islam in Indonesian politics. This, combined with increasing antagonism over the perceived power of Christianity in the islands, led to the 1999 election of Abdurrahman Wahid , who promised to end violence and assert a stronger presence of Islam in government, a position he held until 2001 , when he was forced from office by the parliament that had elected him. His successors have also increased the role of Islam within the...

Laskar Jihad

Laskar Jihad   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...to engage in a physical and revolutionary jihād in Ambon, Central Sulawesi, and Maluku. Though the FKAWJ actively sought the state's intervention in the Maluku and Ambon crises, the Indonesian government led by Bachruddin Jusuf Habibie ( May 1998–October 1999 ) and Abdurrahman Wahid ( October 1999–July 2001 ) failed to resolve the problem. The FKAWJ took the matter into its hands and established Laskar Jihad as its military wing. Salafī-Wahhābī scholars in Saudi Arabia and Yemen issued seven fatwā s (religious opinions) that rendered jihād in Maluku...

Nahdatul Ulama

Nahdatul Ulama   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,396 words

...By stating this, Ahmad Siddiq made it clear that Islam should not confront the state and that the Republic of Indonesia under the Pancasila was the final form with which Indonesian Muslims were to live. Leadership of Abdurrahman Wahid. Alongside Ahmad Siddiq's presidency, the 1984 NU Congress elected Abdurrahman Wahid ( b. 1940 ), son of Wahid Hasyim and grandson of Hasyim Asyʿari , as chairperson of the Tanfidziyah or executive council, while denying Idham Chalid's effort to regain power. They emphasized that at an organizational level, NU was neutral...

Indonesia

Indonesia   Reference library

Damien Kingsbury

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,582 words

...cleric and PKB founder Abdurrahman Wahid as Indonesia's fourth president, with PDI-P chief Megawati Sukarnoputri (Sukarno's daughter) as vice president. With a fragmented legislature and a cabinet including representatives of each of the parties that supported Wahid as president, policy development slowed and opposition to Wahid's tenure mounted. Wahid contributed to his difficulties through erratic behavior, a failure to focus on economic reform, and reliance on a small coterie of advisors to the exclusion of his cabinet. Under Wahid, the economy continued to...

Indonesia

Indonesia   Reference library

Damien Kingsbury

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,579 words

...cleric and PKB founder Abdurrahman Wahid as Indonesia's fourth president, with PDI-P chief Megawati Sukarnoputri (Sukarno's daughter) as vice president. With a fragmented legislature and a cabinet including representatives of each of the parties that supported Wahid as president, policy development slowed and opposition to Wahid's tenure mounted. Wahid contributed to his difficulties through erratic behavior, a failure to focus on economic reform, and reliance on a small coterie of advisors to the exclusion of his cabinet. Under Wahid, the economy continued to...

Mahmud, Abd al-Halim

Mahmud, Abd al-Halim (1910)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
658 words

...he is considered one of the modern advocates of Sufism. In a larger vein, Mahmud is also seen as contributing to Egypt’s tradition of religious moderation and as an advocate for tolerance of faith and science. bibliography Al-Azhar University Alumni: Omar Abdel-Rahman, Abdurrahman Wahid, Omar Bakri Muhammad, Ahmed Subhy Mansour, and Abdullah Yusuf Azzam . Memphis, Tenn.: Books LLC, 2010. robert douglas...

Sukarnoputri, Megawati

Sukarnoputri, Megawati (b. 1947)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
888 words

...her claims by staging a campaign opposing the possibility of a woman president for Indonesia, a majority Muslim country. Riots by her supporters signaled their disappointment. Subsequently, Megawati won the position of vice president, and when in July 2001 President Abdurrahman Wahid was forced to resign for alleged financial improprieties, she assumed the presidency. Activist women had had high hopes for Megawati as a woman leader, but she has refused to bear this mantle. She actively opposed a campaign in 2003–2004 to have a 30 percent quota for...

Indonesia

Indonesia   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
Feb 2014
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
718 words
Illustration(s):
4

...East Timor, opposed by the local people. Suharto was forced to stand down in 1998 and his deputy, Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie , succeeded him. In June 1999 , Habibie's ruling Golkar Party was defeated in elections and, in October, the parliament elected Abdurrahman Wahid as president. However, Wahid, charged with corruption and incompetence, was dismissed in 2001 and succeeded by the vice-president, Megawati Sukarnoputri , Sukarno's daughter. In 2004 she was defeated by the former general Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in the second round of presidential...

Laskar Jihad

Laskar Jihad   Reference library

Etin Anwar and Fred R. von der Mehden

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
863 words

...to engage in a physical and revolutionary jihād in Ambon, Central Sulawesi, and Maluku. Though the FKAWJ actively sought the state's intervention in the Maluku and Ambon crises, the Indonesian governments led by Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (May 1998–October 1999 ) and Abdurrahman Wahid (October 1999–July 2011 ) failed to resolve the problem; elements of the Indonesian military provided some arms and training. Salafī-Wahhābī scholars in Saudi Arabia and Yemen issued seven fatwas (religious opinions) that rendered jihād in Maluku an obligation for...

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