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Aachen

(town, palace) West central German town, known for its hot springs. Aachen’s significance is linked to Charlemagne, who created a Carolingian palace complex there, where he was buried. ...

Aachen

Aachen   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
110 words
Illustration(s):
1

... ( Aix-la-Chapelle ) (town, palace) West central German town, known for its hot springs. Aachen’s significance is linked to *Charlemagne , who created a *Carolingian palace complex there, where he was buried. Successive Carolingian and German rulers gained legitimacy from possessing Aachen. Otto I began the tradition of German rulers being crowned in Aachen, Otto III was buried there, and Frederick I ‘Barbarossa’ orchestrated the *canonization of Charlemagne ( 1165 ). Important *relics , including Charlemagne’s, established Aachen as a late...

Aachen

Aachen   Reference library

Charles Messenger

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... , German city situated close to the Dutch and Belgian borders, the scene of the first major battle fought by Eisenhower 's forces on German soil during the fighting which began the battle for Germany . The West Wall ran close to here and from 12 to 15 September 1944 Hodges 's First US Army attempted to penetrate it south of the city, but without success. Renewing his attacks on 2 October, this time in the north as well, Hodges eventually overcame the German defences, surrounded Aachen on 16 October, and after several days of bitter street...

Aachen

Aachen   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to German Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
121 words

... , a city in Nordrhein-Westfalen , situated close to the Belgo-German frontier, known to English and French historians as Aix-la-Chapelle. Of Roman origin, it became the capital of Charlemagne ( see Karl I, der Grosse ), who is buried in the 8th-c. chapel which forms the central and oldest part of the cathedral. From 813 to 1531 the German Kings ( see Deutscher König ) were crowned in this cathedral, and the city in this period was the scene of seventeen Diets of the Empire. Two peace treaties were signed there: the first marked the close of the War of...

Aachen

Aachen   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
477 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) is situated to the north of the Eifel massif. Its hot springs were known to the Romans, who left several abandoned thermal establishments there in c. 375 . The place is mentioned again in 765 when Pippin the Short stayed there. But it was Charlemagne 's decision in the 800s to make this place his preferred residence that raised Aachen above the other royal residences of the Carolingian Empire . Charlemagne built a group of buildings that aimed to fulfil all needs. Wooden constructions, doubtless the most numerous – i.e. ...

Aachen

Aachen (North Rhine–Westphalia/Germany)   Quick reference

Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Aachen , North Rhine–Westphalia/Germany ( Aquis Granum, Aix-la-Chapelle ) Derived from the Old High German aha ‘water’, a reference to the springs here. The springs of Grannus were named after the Celtic god of healing and later used as baths by the Romans. The ‘la-Chapelle’ of the French name refers to the fact that Charlemagne is buried here in the chapel built by him and is used to differentiate it from other towns beginning with ‘Aix’ which itself evolved from the Latin aquis , the ablative plural of aqua . An Imperial Free City of the Holy Roman Empire...

Aachen

Aachen   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
67 words

... ( Aix-la-Chapelle ) City in sw North Rhine-Westphalia, w Germany. The city is noted for its sulphur baths, used by the Romans, which are the hottest in n Europe. It was the site of medieval imperial diets and the coronations of the monarchs of the Holy Roman Empire from 1349 to 1531 . The local economy is dominated by manufacturing. Industries: iron and steel, machinery, textiles. Pop. ( 1999 )...

Aachen

Aachen   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,315 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the city was rebuilt in the Baroque style. Ceasing to be a Free Imperial city in 1794, Aachen was taken into Prussia in 1815. Now an industrial and mining city, it was badly damaged in World War II. Bibliography K. Faymonville : Die Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt Aachen , 2 vols (Düsseldorf, 1916–22) W. Kaemmerer : Geschichtliches Aachen: Von Werden und Wesen einer Reichsstadt (Aachen, 1955, rev. 2/1957) H. Cüppers , ed.: Aquae Granni: Beiträge zur Archäologie von Aachen , Rheinische Ausgrabungen, xxii (Cologne, 1982) W. Braunfels : ‘Aquisgrana’, Enciclopedia...

Aachen

Aachen   Quick reference

Howard Sargeant

Dictionary Plus Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
64 words

...Aachen ( Aix-la-Chapelle ) A city in western Germany, in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Many medieval buildings survive, notably an eighth-century cathedral, once the largest in northern Europe. Other attractions include Roman mineral baths and a Rathaus (city hall) in which Holy Roman Emperors were crowned. The city administers the Charlemagne Prize, for outstanding service to the unification of Europe. Population ( 2012 ) 240,100. Howard Sargeant...

Aachen, Battle of

Aachen, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

..., Battle of ( October 1944 ) a World War II battle in which Aachen became the first German city to fall to Allied forces. U.S. forces encircled Aachen and entered to find bitter resistance, despite having subjected the defenders to a prolonged aerial and artillery bombardment that destroyed about two-thirds of the city. The garrison surrendered on October...

Gottschalk of Aachen

Gottschalk of Aachen (1071–98)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
64 words

...of Aachen ( fl. 1071–98 ) *Notary , monk , poet , composer . His vision of the relationship between the pope and the German emperor became the conceptual basis of imperial propaganda during the *Investiture Controversy . Michael McGrade M. McGrade , ‘Gottschalk of Aachen, the Investiture Controversy, and Music for the Feast of the Divisio Apostolorum ’, Journal of the American Musicological Society , 49 (1996),...

Aachen, Hans von

Aachen, Hans von   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
132 words

..., Hans von ( 1552–1615 ), German painter, born in Cologne, the son of a native of Aachen. He studied and worked in Italy from 1574 to 1588 , living in Venice and visiting Florence and Rome. On returning to Germany he worked as a portrait and landscape painter; several members of the Fugger family commissioned portraits. In 1592 Hans von Aachen was appointed court painter to Rudolf II , but did not move to Prague until 1597 . Once established in Prague, he turned to mythological and allegorical subjects, notably his series of Allegories on the Wars...

Aachen ambo ivories

Aachen ambo ivories   Reference library

John Hanson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... ambo ivories The ambo at the cathedral in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) is embellished with six ivories probably of the early 8th century from Late Antique Egypt , each carved in high relief and dominated by Isis , Bacchus, and unidentified nymphs and hunters. That they come from Umayyad lands is suggested by the style of the vine scrolls and by the presence of the stirrup , a technology introduced to the Mediterranean through Egypt in the 8th century. John Hanson Volbach , Elfenbeinarbeiten , 45–6, nos. 72–7, pl. 24–5. H. Stern , ‘The Ivories of the...

Aachen, Siege of

Aachen, Siege of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

..., Siege of Following the death in 1247 of Henry Raspe, who had been the rival of the excommunicated Emperor Frederick II , the archbishops of Cologne, Mainz, Trier, and Bremen and the Duke of Brabant elected Count William II of Holland as German king on 3 October 1247 . The coronation was to be held in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), where German kings were traditionally crowned, but the city remained faithful to Frederick II and refused to allow William to enter. William’s supporters began the siege of Aachen at the end of April or the beginning of May...

Aachen, Hans von

Aachen, Hans von (1552–1615)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
191 words

..., Hans von ( 1552–1615 ). Much-travelled German artist who worked mainly in Italy and Bohemia, where he was one of the foremost artists at the court of Emperor Rudolf II at Prague. After training in Cologne, he visited Venice, Rome, and Florence, receiving commissions from Italian patrons and making copies of Antique and Italian works of art. In Prague, von Aachen worked not only as a painter but also as an art agent and, occasionally, diplomat, making frequent journeys abroad. In 1605 Rudolf II conferred a knighthood on him. Along with ...

Aachen, Hans von

Aachen, Hans von (1552)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
151 words

..., Hans von ( b Cologne, 1552 ; d Prague, 4 Mar. 1615 ). German painter; his name derives from his father’s birthplace, rather than his own. He had an international career, working principally in Italy ( c. 1574–87 ) and Prague, where he was appointed court painter by the Emperor Rudolf II ( see Habsburg ) in 1592 . In 1596 he settled permanently in the city (although he made several visits to Germany), and after Rudolf’s death in 1612 he worked for his successor, the Emperor Matthias . His paintings, featuring elegant, elongated figures,...

Aachen, Hans von

Aachen, Hans von   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
156 words

..., Hans von ( b Cologne , 1552 ; d Prague , 4 Mar. 1615 ). German painter ; his name derives from his father's birthplace, rather than his own. He had an international career, working principally in Italy ( c .1574–87 ) and Prague, where he was appointed court painter by Emperor Rudolf II ( see Habsburg ) in 1592 . In 1596 he settled permanently in the city (although he made visits to Germany and elsewhere), and after Rudolf's death in 1612 he worked for his successor, Emperor Matthias. His paintings, featuring elegant, elongated figures, are—like...

Albert of Aachen

Albert of Aachen   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
250 words

...of Aachen , canon; 12th-C. Crusader historian (the name is indicated only in two later MSS). Although he never traveled to the Levant, Albert authored in Latin the Jerusalem History ( Historia Hierosolymitana ), the most detailed contemporary account of the First Crusade (books 1–6) and the Crusader kingdom's early years (books 7–12). He likely began writing before 1119 (possibly as early as 1100–01 ; events of 1109–11 are dated one year too early). He probably wrote book 12 (events of 1111–19 ) in the 1120s and certainly before ca. 1140 or 1150 ...

Aachen Altar, Master of the

Aachen Altar, Master of the (fl c.1485–1515)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
581 words

... Altar, Master of the ( fl c. 1485–1515 ). German painter . He is named after the great winged altarpiece with scenes from the Passion ( c. 1510 ; Aachen, Domschatzkam.), painted for the Carmelite church in Cologne. The central panel depicts an agitated Crucifixion scene in front of a broad landscape background and under a dramatic sky. On the inner sides of the wings are an Ecce homo to the left and a Lamentation to the right. Other events from the Passion appear as subsidiary scenes in the middle-ground. The strongly individualized faces,...

Aachen Altar, Master of the

Aachen Altar, Master of the (fl c. 1485–1515)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Altar, Master of the ( fl c. 1485–1515 ). German painter . He is named after the great winged altarpiece with scenes from the Passion ( c. 1510; Aachen, Domschatzkam.), painted for the Carmelite church in Cologne. The central panel depicts an agitated Crucifixion scene in front of a broad landscape background and under a dramatic sky. On the inner sides of the wings is an Ecce homo to the left and a Lamentation to the right. Other events from the Passion appear as subsidiary scenes in the middle-ground. The strongly individualized faces,...

Aachen

Aachen   Quick reference

New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
158 words

... • blacken , bracken, slacken • Sri Lankan • Alaskan , Gascon, Madagascan, Nebraskan • Aachen , darken, hearken, kraken, Marcan, Petrarchan • Interlaken • beckon , Deccan, pekan, reckon • Mencken • awaken , bacon, betaken, forsaken, Jamaican, mistaken, partaken, shaken, taken, waken • godforsaken • archdeacon , beacon, Costa Rican, deacon, Dominican, Mohican, Mozambican, Puerto Rican, weaken • quicken , sicken, stricken, thicken, Wiccan • silken • Incan , Lincoln • brisken , Franciscan • barbican • Rubicon • Gallican • Anglican • ...

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