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Agrarian Laws

Subject: Religion

The economy envisaged by the laws of the Torah was purely agricultural. The people of Israel were entering a land of milk and honey, blessed by the seven species (Dt. ...

houses

houses   Reference library

Anthony Quiney

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
4,170 words

...occupant, and no longer. They comprised seemingly primitive groups of buildings, once again each apparently acting as a single room, sometimes set around a large building which had all the appearance of a small version of a tribal open hall. This layout admirably suited the agrarian lifestyle of the new migrant population, together with its lack of sophisticated domestic manners. There was, however, symbolic purpose in the hall, or soon would be. An open hall is simply a large room, open to the roof so that the smoke from a fire burning in the centre will...

Indonesia, Republic of

Indonesia, Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
5,553 words
Illustration(s):
1

...responsible for local security and the repair and maintenance of public facilities. Usually the only truly urban sections of these cities were the quarters occupied by foreign traders, notably the Chinese. Historically, Indonesian political and cultural life was focused on the agrarian-based kraton (palace) or holy town. The core comprised the kraton and the main temples surrounded by the houses of the nobility and religious leaders. Traditionally, the royal cities comprised a series of settlements clustered around the seat of government of the local...

Mughal

Mughal   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
4,052 words
Illustration(s):
2

...ancestors, the Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, especially their luxury books ( see Illustration , §V, D ) and jades ( see Jade ). These Timurid wares provided prototypes for Mughal wares, which were also inscribed with the names and titles of the emperors. I. Habib : The Agrarian System of Mughal India (Bombay, 1963) B. G asgoigne : The Great Moghuls (London, 1971; R 1987) A. J. Qaisar : The Indian Response to European Technology and Culture, 1498–1707 (Delhi, 1982) T. Raychaudhari and I. Habib , eds.: The Cambridge Economic History of India , i...

Landscape

Landscape   Reference library

Christopher Fitter, Holmes Rolston III, Daniel Joseph Nadenicek, and Allen A. Carlson

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
16,656 words
Illustration(s):
2

...agriculture entailed the coercion and transformation of the natural world into a planned and regulated order. As agriculture produced a nature of systematic, standard design, so in art the natural world became correspondingly articulable through fixed schematic forms. As settled agrarian civilizations grew fiercely territorial, moreover, human figures came to require siting: Sumerian and Egyptian vases introduced the ruled groundline, and thus the defined image field: figures now are set in their “own,” limited space. These developments—symbolism, groundline,...

History

History   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
12,377 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with China, leading to a great enrichment of the resources available to Iranian artists. On the social and economic level, the picture is darker. The Mongol commitment to the nomadic–pastoral traditions of Inner Asia discouraged efforts to restore the infrastructure of urban and agrarian life, damaged so severely during the decades of conquest. Moreover, the Mongols dragged in with them great numbers of Turco-Mongol tribesmen, enough to alter permanently the ethnic make-up of Iran and Anatolia and to shift vast tracts from an agricultural to a nomadic–pastoral...

North America

North America   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,766 words

...of many of these painters and is useful as a comparative approach to the history of art in North America. The mural tradition that began in the religious establishments of colonial Mexico took a more provocative turn at the time of the country’s populist uprising for social and agrarian reform beginning in 1910 with the founding of the Centro Artistico by Gerardo Murillo, who signed his works Dr. Alt , the model for and teacher of a generation of muralists. After 1920 , with the formation of a new government, painters were enlisted to provide large-scale...

Black Aesthetics

Black Aesthetics   Reference library

Paul C. Taylor and Sylvia Wynter

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,502 words

... Watts riot) and Kuzaliwa (May 19, celebrating Malcolm X’s birth) ( Van Deburg, 1992 , p. 171). Although he saw himself, in the terms of his adopted African name, as the “keeper” of the black community’s tradition, he nevertheless saw this tradition as one whose origin was in agrarian Africa, and as a tradition reinterpreted by him, rather than as the empirical one carried over in the Middle Passage slave-ships then reinvented over the centuries by lower-class popular initiatives in the Americas and in the Caribbean. As a result, although he borrowed...

Roman Republic and Empire

Roman Republic and Empire   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
9,431 words
Illustration(s):
3

...as status symbols and as valuable tools for self-promotion. In the 2nd and 1st centuries bc the rise of acute class consciousness and unrestrained individualism caused a series of social disruptions. The dislocation of small farmers from their land led to uprisings followed by agrarian reforms. The revolt of Rome’s Italian allies in the Social War ( 91–87 bc ) culminated with the enfranchisement of the entire peninsula. During these agitations, individuals grappled for personal power: governors exploited provinces; generals acted as warlords with private...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...shaped stones). The new material was also used to alleviate Rome’s housing crisis. In the 2nd century bc , Rome was an overcrowded city of twisting alleys and dangerous apartment blocks, frequently threatened by fire, flooding or collapse. According to Cicero ( On the Agrarian Law II.xxxv.96) the city was ridiculed by the Capuans, whose well-planned city was on a broad, open plain. Blocks of apartments were built of sun-dried brick, but, as regulations restricted the thickness of party walls to 500 mm, they could be only one storey high ( see ...

Landscape

Landscape   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,487 words
Illustration(s):
3

...agriculture entailed the coercion and transformation of the natural world into a planned and regulated order. As agriculture produced a nature of systematic, standard design, so in art the natural world became correspondingly articulable through fixed schematic forms. As settled agrarian civilizations grew fiercely territorial, moreover, human figures came to require siting: Sumerian and Egyptian vases introduced the ruled groundline, and thus the defined image field: figures now are set in their “own,” limited space. These developments—symbolism, groundline,...

Black Aesthetic

Black Aesthetic   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,758 words

... Watts riot) and Kuzaliwa ( May 19 , celebrating Malcolm X's birth) (Van Deburg, 1992 , p. 171). Although he saw himself, in the terms of his adopted African name, as the “keeper” of the black community's tradition, he nevertheless saw this tradition as one whose origin was in agrarian Africa, and as a tradition reinterpreted by him, rather than as the empirical one reinvented over the centuries by lower-class popular initiatives in the Americas and in the Caribbean. As a result, although he borrowed eclectically from several traditional African cultures in...

Children’s Bibles and Literature

Children’s Bibles and Literature   Reference library

Ruth B. Bottigheimer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and the Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Art & Architecture
Length:
7,054 words

... Jesus Christus in Kinderbibeln (Jesus Christ in Children’s Bibles, 2004 ), edited by Hans-Gerd Wirtz and Franz-Josef Ortkemper. For religious educators and social historians, children’s Bible story choice is of primary importance, yet the canonical biblical source reflects agrarian and herding assumptions as well as urban expectations, only the latter of which resonates with most contemporary readers. Editing ancient and alien assumptions for modern readers, in the process bending them to doctrinal expectations, requires supple thinking and creative...

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