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AAAA

AAAA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Abbreviations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Language reference
Length:
6 words

... American Academy of Anesthesiologists...

thalassemias

thalassemias  

A group of human anemias due to imbalance in the ratio of alpha and/or beta hemoglobin subunits. Since there are four alpha genes per genome, deletions (commonly produced by unequal crossing over) ...
autotetraploid

autotetraploid   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
40 words

...an autopolyploid with four similar genomes. If a given gene exists in two allelic forms A and a , then five genotypic classes can be formed in an autotetraploid: AAAA (quadruplex), AAAa (triplex), AAaa (duplex), Aaaa (simplex), and aaaa ...

strophic

strophic   Reference library

G. M. Tucker and Jane Bellingham

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
77 words

...strophic . In poetry, a stanzaic form in which each verse (strophe) follows the same structure, metre, and rhyme scheme. In music the term is used by extension to describe any form founded on a repeated pattern: AAAA, etc. It is most commonly found in songs, especially folksongs and art songs of a folk-like nature, in which each stanza of the poem is set to the same music. See also form (2) . G. M. Tucker / Jane Bellingham...

isozymes

isozymes   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
124 words

...pH or substrate concentration at which they function best. Isozymes are complex proteins made up of paired polypeptide subunits. The lactic dehydrogenases, for example, are tetramers made up of two polypeptide units, A and B. Five isozymes exist and can be symbolized as follows: AAAA, AAAB, AABB, ABBB, and BBBB. Isozymes often have different isoelectric points and, therefore, can be separated by electrophoresis. The different monomers of which isozymes like lactic dehydrogenase are composed are specified by different gene loci. The term allozyme is used to...

power

power ((of a matrix))   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... (of a matrix) If A is a square matrix, then AA , AAA , AAAA ,…are defined, and these powers of A are denoted by A 2 , A 3 , A 4 ,…. For all positive integers p and q , (i) A p A q = A p + q = A q A p , and (ii) ( A p ) q = A pq . By definition, A 0 = I . Moreover, if A is invertible , then A 2 , A 3 ,…are invertible, and it can be shown that ( A −1 ) p is the inverse of A p , that is, that ( A −1 ) p =( A p ) −1 . So either of these is denoted by A − p . Thus, when A is invertible, A p has been defined for all integers...

lava

lava   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...of a lava flow cools quickly in contact with the air and solidifies rapidly. Continued movement of the lava underneath this surface may cause it to break into blocks, or the surface may become wrinkled and folded to form a ropy texture. Blocky and ropy lavas are often known as aa-aa and pa-hoe-hoe , onomatopoeic Hawaiian words. Judith M....

thalassemias

thalassemias   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
229 words

...form a tetramer (β 4 ), resulting in hemoglobin H disease. Individuals with two or three alpha genes are almost indistinguishable from normal. Epidemiological studies have shown that individuals with alpha thalassemia trait (--/aa or -a/-a) are more resistant to malaria than aa/aa individuals. Incomplete beta chains can be produced by nonsense codons. Deletions in beta genes are commonly produced by unequal crossing over, as are the hybrid chains containing δ and β segments (Hb Lepore) or A γ and β segments (Hb Kenya). Beta thalassemia (also called Cooley...

Omar Khayyám Quatrain

Omar Khayyám Quatrain   Reference library

R.M.A. Allen

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Khayyám Quatrain or Rubaiyat stanza (from Persian, originally Ar. rubāʿiyyāt [ pl. ], “quatrains”) . In Eng. poetry, a quatrain of decasyllabic lines rhyming aaba (rarely aaaa ). The term is taken from Edward FitzGerald ’s famous collection Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám ( 1859 ), which is a free adaptation of a selection of poems by the Persian poet ʿUmar Khayyām (d. 1122 ), whose major reputation within the cl. Ar. trad. is as an algebraist. There is considerable doubt as to the attribution of a large part of Khayyām’s poetry, but about 50...

Cahuilla

Cahuilla   Reference library

Ernest H. Siva and Kay Edwards

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
926 words

...and art of the tribe. The formal plan of Cahuilla music was basically a two-part song form: a first part, which generally had four repetitions, an upward motion to the second part (the “rise”), and an ending formula that differed with each song type. A typical form was AAAA BABA AAAA BABA C . The songs usually occurred in groups. A pair of songs related textually (often related musically as well) were referred to as “brothers.” The songs in a cycle relied upon one another for meaning; this led to lengthy song series. Meter was predominantly complex,...

Versification

Versification   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,437 words

...: this was very successful from the 17th to the 19th c., for example in Metastasio , in the odes of Parini and Foscolo , and the lyric poetry of Manzoni and the Romantic poets. Of the early non-lyric forms, the most important are the quartina monorima in alexandrines (AAAA, in imitation of the French) and the sirventese caudato (AAAb BBBc …, with long lines of between 9 and 14 syllables and short lines with from 4 or 5 up to 7—the latter indicated by the lower-case letters in the normal schematic notation). From this there probably derived the ...

murabbaˁ

murabbaˁ   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Arabic Literary Terms and Devices

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Literally, ‘four-fold’—a strophic form of poetry consisting of a musammaṭ with four-line stanzas. The rhyme scheme would be aaaa bbba ccca ddda, and so forth. As with the musammaṭ , the external rhyme (a) is called a ‘string’ or simṭ , while the internal rhymes are called ‘branches’ or aghṣān . ...

mukhammas

mukhammas   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Arabic Literary Terms and Devices

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...rhyme scheme would be aaaaa bbbba cccca dddda, and so forth. As with the musammaṭ , the external rhyme (a) is called a ‘string’ or simṭ , while the internal rhymes are called ‘branches’ or aghṣān . Very often a mukhammas poem is an expansion of an existing poem in monorhyme (aaaa …). ...

dūbayt

dūbayt   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Arabic Literary Terms and Devices

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...identical to the Persian rubāˁī or quatrain. This is because each hemistich or half-verse of the distich fits into the rhyme scheme as an independent unit; thus, the poem is comprised of four sections for the purposes of the rhyme. The rhyme scheme for a dūbayt is either aaaa or aaba. ...

musammaṭ

musammaṭ   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Arabic Literary Terms and Devices

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... A type of stanzaic poem developed by poets in the ˁAbbāsid era . Such a poem, when composed of four-line stanzas—a musammaṭ murabbaˁ —would have the rhyme scheme aaaa bbba ccca ddda , and so forth, the external rhyme (a) being called a ‘string’ or simṭ , while the internal rhymes are called ‘branches’ or aghṣān . An example of this type of poem is attributed, perhaps incorrectly, to Abū Nuwās (d. 198 / 813 ). Here are its opening lines: sulāfu dannī / ka-shamsi dajnī / ka-damˁi jafnī / ka-khamri ˁadnī ṭabīkhu shamsī / ka-lawni warsī / rabību...

Quatrain

Quatrain   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and M. Martin

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...primarily as a unit of composition in longer poems and forming the two components of the octave of the sonnet . Other rhyme schemes include aabb , in which internal balance or antithesis is achieved through opposed couplets , as in P. B. Shelley ’s “The Sensitive Plant”; aaaa or aaxa , a monorhymed or nearly monorhymed stanza, such as Gottfried Keller ’s “Abendlied” or the Rubaiyat stanza. There are also interlinking rhyming quatrains that alternate masculine and feminine rhymes, as in the most common Rus. stanza form ( AbAb or aBaB , in which...

Rubāʿī

Rubāʿī   Reference library

F. D. Lewis

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,326 words
Illustration(s):
1

...syllables. The du-baytī quatrain, by contrast, is composed in a canonical Persian meter, usually hazaj , in a shorter 11-syllable (19-morae) pattern: ᴗ – – – | ᴗ – – – | ᴗ – –. The rhyme scheme for all rubāʿī and du-baytī quatrains is aaxa and often, esp. in the early period, aaaa . In Persian, Turkish, and Urdu rubāʿīs, the rhyme may occur before the end of each misṣrāʿ, to be followed by a uniform refrain ( radīf ). The Persian quatrain is an epigrammatic genre, tersely developing an image, thought, or problem that is then wittily or forcefully resolved...

Airline Industry

Airline Industry   Reference library

R. Benjamin HILL

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
4,306 words

...Retrieved June 30, 2009, from http://developpement-durable.airfrance.com/FR/fr/common/pdf/af_ra_gb.pdf Air Transport Association. (2008). 2008 economic report: Connecting/protecting our planet. Retrieved June 8, 2009, from http://www.airlines.org/NR/rdonlyres/770B5715-5C6F-44AA-AA8C-DC9AEB4E7E12/0/2008AnnualReport.pdf American Airlines. (2009). Fuel smart. Retrieved December 18, 2009, from http://www.aa.com/i18n/amrcorp/newsroom/fuel-smart.jsp AMR Corporation. (n.d.). 2007 environmental responsibility report prepared by AMR Corporation. Retrieved June 30...

Rhyme

Rhyme   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan, S. Cushman, K. S. Chang, R.M.A. Allen, W. L. Hanaway, and C. Scott

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
10,692 words

...feature of Persian rhyme is the radīf , a syllable, word, or phrase repeated verbatim following the rhyme, e.g., yār dāram / khomār dāram , where the rhyme is - ār and the radīf is dāram . Some typical rhyme schemes are the following: qaṣīda and ghazal, aabaca ; quatrain, aaaa or aaba ; masnavī or rhyming couplet, aabbcc , etc.; qeṭʿa, bacada . Strophic forms have more complicated schemes. This can be seen most notably in the Andalusian, muwashshaḥ , where, within a series of strophes , one section (usually termed ghuṣn ) will normally have an...

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