You are looking at 1-20 of 97 entries  for:

  • History of Science x
  • Medicine and health x
clear all

View:

Overview

A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Sagan, Carl

Sagan, Carl (1934–1996)   Reference library

Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Cosmos , became a best-seller. His more than 20 popular books promoting science and space research included The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence ( 1977 ) and Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space ( 1994 ). His science-fiction novel Contact ( 1985 ) imagined an encounter with extraterrestrials while also commenting on U.S. politics in the early 1980s. Turning to public issues, Sagan supported the environmental and antinuclear movements, endorsing the “nuclear winter” hypothesis that a global...

Mc Cormick, Cyrus Hall

Mc Cormick, Cyrus Hall (1809–1884)   Reference library

Fred V. Carstensen, Elspeth Knewstubb, and Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1809–1884 ), inventor and manufacturer . Cyrus Hall McCormick was born on a farm in Rockbridge County, Virginia, the eldest of eight children. His father, Robert, was a farmer and inventor, interested especially in developing labor-saving innovations for farming. In 1831 , McCormick took up a project his father had pursued unsuccessfully for 20 years: building a reaper to speed the harvesting of small grains. In July 1831 , he gave a public demonstration of his new design, mowing a field of wheat on John Steele’s farm in Rockbridge. This prototype reaper...

Office of Technology Assessment, Congressional

Office of Technology Assessment, Congressional   Reference library

Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Technology . ] Bibliography Bimber, Bruce . The Politics of Expertise in Congress: The Rise and Fall of the Office of Technology Assessment . Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996. Office of Technology Assessment . http://www.princeton.edu/~ota/ns20/proces_f.html (accessed 20 March 2012). Paul S....

Postal Service, U.S.

Postal Service, U.S.   Reference library

Richard B. Kielbowicz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Innovations with Congressional Constraints, 1789–1970 . Report for Postal Rate Commission, 2000. Available at http://www.prc.gov/prc-docs/library/refdesk/techpapers/Kielbowicz/enterprise.pdf (accessed 20 March 2012). National Postal Museum, Smithsonian Institution . http://www.postalmuseum.si.edu (accessed 20 March 2012). Scheele, Carl H. A Short History of the Mail Service . Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1970. Sorkin, Alan L. The Economics of the Postal System . Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1980. Richard B. Kielbowicz...

Just, Ernest Everett

Just, Ernest Everett (1883–1941)   Reference library

Mark Robinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

.... This book was published a year before Germany invaded France, where Just lived. Just spent a short time in an internment camp before the U.S. State Department freed him. Just returned to the United States in 1940 in declining health and died of cancer in 1941 . [ See also American Association for the Advancement of Science ; Biological Sciences ; Botany ; Higher Education and Science ; Race and Medicine ; Science ; and Zoology .] Bibliography Kessler, James. H. Distinguished African American Scientists of the 20th Century . Westport,...

Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill

Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill   Reference library

Stephen Haycox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill At about 9:45 p.m. on 20 April 2010 , methane gas escaping from an oil well being drilled from a massive drilling rig on the ocean surface into the floor of the Gulf of Mexico five thousand feet below ignited and exploded, starting an inextinguishable fire that caused the drilling rig to collapse into the sea after burning for 36 hours. Although 115 workers on the rig escaped by lifeboat, 11 were killed. The rig, Deepwater Horizon , a structure that could be dynamically positioned, had drilled the last phase of an...

Silliman, Benjamin, Sr.

Silliman, Benjamin, Sr. (1779–1864)   Reference library

Julie R. Newell and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...mineralogy, and geology, but through the achievements of his many students and through the American Journal of Science , which he established in 1818 . He was the journal’s sole editor for the next 20 years. The American Journal of Science , commonly referred to as Silliman’s Journal , the nation’s first general scientific periodical, offered a venue where Americans could read about the experiments and observations of their countrymen and publish their own work. Silliman used the journal to call for further support for science and scientific...

Mayer, Maria Goeppert

Mayer, Maria Goeppert (1906–1972)   Reference library

Karen E. Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...part time with a branch of the Manhattan Project, investigating the separation of uranium isotopes. After the war, the University of Chicago attracted both Mayers to its new Institute for Nuclear Studies. Goeppert Mayer worked as a voluntary associate professor at the institute and took a part-time (paid) position as a research physicist at the new Argonne National Laboratory. While working on a theory of the origin of the chemical elements, Goeppert Mayer discovered that nuclei with certain specific numbers of protons or neutrons—2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, or...

Lindbergh, Charles

Lindbergh, Charles (1902–1974)   Reference library

Peter L. Jakab

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Charles ( 1902–1974 ), aviator . Lindbergh burst upon the world stage on 20– 21 May 1927 when he piloted his single-engine Ryan monoplane, The Spirit of St. Louis , solo across the Atlantic. Although this was the signature achievement of his life, Lindbergh’s impact went well beyond his epic flight. Reared on a farm in Little Falls, Minnesota, the son of a farm-bloc congressman, Lindbergh in 1920 enrolled as an engineering student at the University of Wisconsin. He dropped out after two years, learned to fly, and spent the summer of 1923 ...

Baird, Spencer Fullerton

Baird, Spencer Fullerton (1823–1887)   Reference library

Pamela M. Henson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1978. Focuses on Baird’s work in ichthyology and contains a detailed list of archival collections, based on Allard’s 1967 dissertation. Deiss, William A. “Spencer F. Baird and his Collectors.” Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 9, no. 4 (1980): 635–645. Goode, George Brown . “The Published Writings of Spencer Fullerton Baird, 1843–1882.” U.S. National Museum Bulletin 20 (1883): i–xvi, 1–377. Contains a detailed bibliography. Rivinus, Edward F. , and Youssef, Elizabeth M. Spencer Baird of the Smithsonian . Washington, D.C...

Teller, Edward

Teller, Edward (1908–2003)   Reference library

Gregg Herken and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and his peers as well as the intersection of science and technology with policy. Mullet, Shawn . “Teller, Edward.” In Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Vol. 25, pp. 20–25. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. Gregg Herken ; updated by Elspeth...

Wright, Wilbur

Wright, Wilbur (1867–1912)   Reference library

Fred Howard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1905 , when their long, circling flights over a pasture near Dayton attracted attention. Afraid that others might copy their invention, they dismantled their flying machine and spent two years trying to interest the governments of the United States, England, France, and Germany in purchasing a Wright airplane. In February 1908 , the U.S. War Department finally agreed to consider a purchase. In March, the Wrights signed a contract with the French. By that summer, French aviators were making flights of up to 20 minutes. Europe seemed poised to take the lead in...

Red Cross, American

Red Cross, American   Reference library

John F. Hutchinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...patriotic enthusiasm; the wartime boom brought the organization 20 million members and a treasury surplus of $127 million by 1919 . Salaried administrators proliferated despite its tradition of voluntarism. Ambitious plans for innovative peacetime public-health and social-welfare programs at home and abroad soon foundered on war weariness and isolationism, opposition from established agencies and interest groups, hostility from the newspapers controlled by William Randolph Hearst, and a grassroots suspicion among volunteers that the central office had...

Missiles and Rockets

Missiles and Rockets   Reference library

J. D. Hunley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the first stage of a series of highly successful, multistage launch vehicles designated Thor-Delta and then just Delta before Delta IV introduced a totally new first stage. Delta IV had a successful first launch on 20 November 2002 . Nine years later, it was still in use in various configurations as part of the Air Force’s Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program. Greatly improved over the years, Delta had begun as early as 1963 to use “strap-on” (attached) solid-propellant boosters to increase the thrust of the first stage, a practice continued...

National Institutes of Health

National Institutes of Health   Reference library

Victoria A. Harden and Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...In 1891 the “Hygiene Laboratory” moved to Washington, D.C. In 1902 the laboratory established a formal research program on infectious diseases and assumed regulatory responsibility for licensing vaccines and antitoxins. In 1912 , the research scope was broadened to include noninfectious diseases. In 1930 Congress changed the laboratory’s name to the National Institute of Health and in 1937 created a National Cancer Institute, the first of more than 20 NIH institutes focusing on specific disease categories. The 1944 Public Health Service Act...

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill   Reference library

Stephen Haycox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...joint federal–state Exxon Vald ez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Subsequent federal court action exacerbated the continuing impact of the spill because a class action suit to compensate affected fishermen and communities in the Sound was not settled for 20 years. [ See also Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill ; Environmentalism ; Environmental Protection Agency ; and Ethics and Professionalism in Engineering . ] Bibliography Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/ (accessed 10 April 2012). Spill: The Wreck of...

Townes, Charles H.

Townes, Charles H. (1915–)   Reference library

Orville R. Butler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and the ; Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research ; Physics ; Quantum Theory ; and Religion and Science .] Bibliography “Charles H. Townes.” Interview by Finn Aaserud , Niels Bohr Library & Archives, College Park, Md., 20 and 21 May 1987. http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4918.html (accessed 3 April 2012). Charles Hard Townes, a Life in Physics: Bell Telephone Laboratories and World War II, Columbia University and the Laser, MIT and Government Service, California and Research in Astrophysics . An oral history conducted in 1991–1992 by Suzanne B....

Von Braun, Wernher

Von Braun, Wernher (1912–1977)   Reference library

Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Flight Center at Huntsville, operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). His crowning achievement, the massive Saturn V booster rocket, three hundred feet in height, delivering 7.5 million pounds of thrust, powered NASA’s Apollo 2 mission that on 20 July 1969 landed two U.S. astronauts on the moon. Handsome and charismatic, von Braun through speeches, books, magazine articles, and three Disney educational films celebrated the romance of space. He retired from NASA in 1972 as public enthusiasm waned, but continued to promote...

Hitchcock, Edward

Hitchcock, Edward (1793–1864)   Reference library

Rodney L. Stiling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...forms, etc.), Hitchcock nevertheless insisted, in a signature statement, that “the real question is, not whether these hypotheses accord with our religious views, but whether they are true” (“The Law of Nature’s Constancy Subordinate to the Higher Law of Change,” Bibliotheca Sacra ( 1863 ) 20:670:489–561). Hitchcock married Orra White ( 1796–1863 ) in 1821 . They raised four daughters and two sons, the latter (Edward and Charles) undertaking significant careers in science. Orra White Hitchcock developed into an accomplished artist whose drawings illustrated...

Cori, Gerty

Cori, Gerty (1896–1957)   Reference library

Tulley Long

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...; Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research ; and Physiology .] Bibliography Cohen, Mildred . “Carl Ferdinand Cori, 1896–1984.” National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs 61 (1992): 79–109. Cori, Carl . “The Call of Science.” Annual Review of Biochemistry 38 (1969): 1–20. Larner, Joseph . “Gerty Theresa Cori, 1896–1957.” National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs 61 (1992): 111–135. Tulley Long...

View: